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Technical Paper

Weathering of Black Plastics for Automotive Exteriors

2003-03-03
2003-01-1191
Ten mold-in-color black polymers were evaluated for exterior weathering in an attempt to improve the specifications for exterior mold-in-color plastics to meet five year durability for a 95th percentile sunbelt customer. Four different weathering methods were utilized including Arizona exposure, Florida exposure, and Xenon arc exposures per the GMNA and the GM Europe methods. Colorfastness, gloss retention and other material property changes due to weathering were measured and analyzed against two GM durability standards. For the appearance attributes, correlations between actual exposure and accelerated exposure were attempted. Test results before and after polishing were also analyzed. Finally, in addition to comparing the performance of the ten polymers, the four weathering methods are compared and discussed with recommendations for the preferred testing regimen.
Technical Paper

Transient Vibration Simulation of Motor Gearbox Assembly Driven by a PWM Inverter

2017-06-05
2017-01-1892
Predicting the vibration of a motor gearbox assembly driven by a PWM inverter in the early stages of development is demanding because the assembly is one of the dominant noise sources of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a simulation model that can predict the transient vibration excited by gear meshing, reaction force from the mount, and electromagnetic forces including the carrier frequency component of the inverter up to 10 kHz. By utilizing the techniques of structural model reduction and state space modeling, the proposed model can predict the vibration of assembly in the operating condition with a system level EV simulator. A verification test was conducted to compare the simulation results with the running test results of the EV.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

2017-11-07
2017-36-0195
Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

2009-06-09
2009-01-2279
Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Formability Simulation of Automotive Body Structures

2001-10-16
2001-01-3048
This paper presents a simplified approach for formability simulation of automotive body structural sections in the early design stage of vehicle development process. Plane strain approach is investigated for its applicability and accuracy by comparing the analytical results with the measured results of automotive body side panel. The plane strain approach was tried based on the fact that for a certain section location of a stamped panel, the minor strains are relatively small and negligible compared to the major strains. The state of plane strain can be induced mainly through symmetry and applied boundary conditions. This approach is both cost effective and time saving for analyzing sheet metal formability in early vehicle development stage, since only few sections of the entire panel need be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0666
In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Planetary Carrier Staking Groove Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0239
Simple planetary gears are widely used in automobile industry due to their compact design and high power density. A simple planetary gear set consists of a Sun gear, Ring gear, Planets and Carrier which houses planet gears. Mounting of planet pinions on carrier is through pins which is supported on needle roller bearings. A process called staking is used to assemble the pinion pins on to the carrier. Pinion pins have a staking region which after assembly expands outward into staking groove on the carrier to prevent axial movement of the pins. Design of the groove plays a vital role for the fixation of planet pins and robustness a carrier. Planetary carrier staking grooves are designed to meet pinion pin retention and strength targets.
Technical Paper

Objective Characterization of Vehicle Brake Feel

1994-03-01
940331
Historically, vehicle brake feel has usually been evaluated in a subjective manner. If an objective measure was used, it was pedal force versus the deceleration rate of the vehicle. Stopping distance is almost always used to characterize vehicle braking performance by the automotive press. This represents limit braking performance, but ignores braking performance under normal driving conditions experienced by customers most of the time. Evaluation of pedal feel by the press is generally limited to subjective adjectives such as “mushy”, “positive”, and “responsive”. A method will be presented, which is being used by General Motors, to translate customer brake feel expectations into objective performance metrics. These metrics are correlated to actual subjective ratings and are used to set objective, measurable requirements for performance.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

2019-04-02
2019-01-0826
Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

GM's Evolving Epsilon Midsize Car Platform

2005-04-11
2005-01-1028
This paper reviews the history of the General Motor's Epsilon Platform from a Body Structure perspective. From the time that it was conceived in 1996 to the present, the platform has evolved to meet many changing requirements. The focus of this paper will cover basic body requirements such as crash performance, modal requirements, packaging issues, changes for wheelbase and powertrains, mass, different body styles, etc, including the differences between European and US requirements. It will demonstrate that this globally developed platform met all its initial requirements and continued to evolve over time to meet additional changing requirements.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Curves for the AA5083 Alloy under Quick Plastic Forming Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0235
Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) were developed for the 5083 aluminum alloy at conditions simulating high temperature processes such as superplastic and quick plastic forming. Sheet samples were formed at 450 °C and at a constant strain rate of 5x10-3 s-1, by free bulging into a set of elliptical die inserts with different aspect ratios. Friction-independent formability diagrams, which distinguish between the safe and unsafe deformation zones, were constructed. Although the formability diagrams were confined to the biaxial strain region (right side quadrant of an FLD), the elliptical die insert methodology provides formability maps under conditions where traditional mechanical stretching techniques are limited.
Technical Paper

Failure Evaluation of Clinched Thin Gauged Pedestrian Friendly Hood by Slam Simulation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0789
In order to reduce the number of head injuries sustained by pedestrian accidents, safety engineers are developing pedestrian friendly hood systems through gauge optimization of the hood inner panel. In this study, the clinch method was employed to assemble a pedestrian friendly hood with a 0.5mm thick inner panel. Static and dynamic analyses were carried out to determine the clinch experiencing the highest loads and to understand the fatigue behavior of a clinched hood during a slam event. The macroscopic failure modes of clinched joints by hood slam were studied by means of a scanning electron microscope. A simple equation was derived to correlate the hexahedron spot weld model as a substitute for clinching in order to obtain an equivalent stiffness for a clinched joint within the linear region of an F-D curve. The F-D curve was obtained by lap shear testing.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Ignition Hazard Posed by Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery Canisters

2001-03-05
2001-01-0731
ORVR (Onboard Refueling Vapor Recovery) canisters trap vapors during normal operations of a vehicle's engine, and during refueling. This study evaluates the relative risks involved should a canister rupture in a crash. A canister impactor was developed to simulate real-world impacts and to evaluate the canisters' rupture characteristics. Numerous performance aspects of canisters were evaluated: the energy required to rupture a canister; the spread of carbon particles following rupture; the ease of ignition of vapor-laden particles; the vapor concentration in the area of ruptured, vapor-laden canisters; and the potential of crashes to rupture and ignite canisters. Results from these five items were combined into a risk analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of Breath-Alcohol-Detection System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1498
The problem of high fatal accident rates due to drunk driving persists, and must be reduced. This paper reports on a prototype system mounted on a car mock-up and a prototype portable system that enables the checking of the drivers’ sobriety using a breath-alcohol sensor. The sensor unit consists of a water-vapor-sensor and three semiconductor gas sensors for ethanol, acetaldehyde, and hydrogen. One of the systems’ features is that they can detect water vapor from human-exhaled breath to prevent false detection with fake gases. Each gas concentration was calculated by applying an algorithm based on a differential evolution method. To quickly detect the water vapor in exhaled breath, we applied an AC voltage between the two electrodes of the breath-water-vapor sensor and used our alcohol-detection algorithm. The ethanol level was automatically calculated from the three gas sensors as soon as the water vapor was detected.
Technical Paper

Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0842
This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method.
Technical Paper

Design Enhancement of the Rear Composite Structure for the 2005 Chevrolet Corvette Coupe and Z06

2005-04-11
2005-01-0467
This paper describes the design and development of the rear compartment structure of the sixth generation Corvette, C6, which starts in the 2005 model year. The improved design integrates the rear compartment packaging to address issues seen on fifth generation Corvette, C5. The molded composite fiberglass reinforced, tub and surround panels are similar to the C5. These large panels are modified to fit the new styling theme of the C6, while also addressing the packaging requirements of the updated underbody structure and exhaust system. New composite side support brackets and cross car reinforcement combine to address several desired improvements. These side support brackets are designed to package the rear audio speakers, electrical modules, wiring and cable routing while also addressing build variation and localized stiffness improvement. The side brackets support the surround panel increasing the manufacturing control of the surround panel.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Camshaft Lobe Microstructure Obtained by Different Processing

2012-10-02
2012-36-0499
The present work aims to characterize the microstructure of valvetrain camshaft lobes that are currently applied in the automotive industry, obtained by different processing routes. The cam lobe microstructure has been assessed by microscopy, whereas the mechanical properties by hardness profile measurements on the surface region. Microconstituents type and form, composing the final microstructure at the cam lobe work region, are defined by the casting route and/or post-heat treatment process other than alloy chemical composition, so that knowledge and control of processing route is vital to assure suitable valvetrain system assembly performance and durability. Most of the mechanical solicitations on the part occur at the interface between cam and follower; the actual contact area is significantly smaller than the apparent area. As a result, the microstructure at and near the surface performs a direct role on the performance of the valvetrain, cam lobe and its counterpart.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Evaluating Spot Welds for Automotive Durability

1998-09-29
982277
The need for accurate virtual prototyping prediction is well documented in the literature. For welded body structures one notable shortcoming has been the ability for finite element analysis (FEA) to accurately predict the failure of welded joints due to cyclic loading. A new approach to representing spot-welds for durability evaluation in automotive sheet metal structures is presented here. Excellent correlation with spot-weld failures in actual tests have been observed through this modeling approach. We present a method of representing spot-welds using the finite element method. This method has shown to be able of predicting the behavior of spot-welds prior to the build of any prototypes or testing. Further, for spot-weld failures we present evidence that reveals which radial quadrant of the spot-weld will contain the failure. This method also allows engineers to determine the mechanism of failure. This paper describes in detail the spot-weld modeling method.
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