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Technical Paper

Opportunities for Conversion of Powertrain Components from Malleable/Ductile Cast Irons to Powder Metallurgy

Malleable and ductile cast irons are used extensively in gearing and high strength applications within automotive power train applications. Advantages of malleable and ductile cast irons are low material cost with mechanical properties that meet or exceed the requirements of the intended application(s). One disadvantage of the malleable cast iron is the extensive heat treating required to obtain the proper microstructure and mechanical properties. Both malleable and ductile iron components require extensive machining to produce the finished component. The combination of heat treating and extensive machining often results in a component that is costly to manufacture. Recent advances in the Powder Metallurgy (P/M) process including high strength material systems and high density processing have achieved mechanical properties that meet or exceed the level achieved with the current malleable and ductile cast iron materials.
Technical Paper

Materials Solutions for Converting Cast Iron Applications to Powder Metal

In the last several years, powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been developed to rival the properties of cast iron and screw machined grades utilized in both automotive and non-automotive applications. These materials offer the P/M industry a momentous opportunity to dramatically increase its market by replacing some of the cast iron volume utilized today. While the inherent net shape capabilities of P/M and the potential cost savings of conversion to P/M offer customers distinct advantages, previous materials have not offered property combinations comparable to many cast iron grades. This work will explore the common grades of cast iron and propose P/M materials as possible replacements for each.
Technical Paper

High Performance P/M Stainless Steels

Powder Metallurgy (P/M) stainless steel automotive exhaust flanges are in volume production. However competing technologies continue to improve and may threaten the anticipated increase in applications of P/M stainless steel flanges. This paper examines improvements in powder propeties that should improve the processing and perfomance of P/M stainless steels.
Technical Paper

Application of Sinter-Hardenable Materials for Advanced Automotive Applications such as Gears, Cams, and Sprockets

Recent demands within the automotive industry have been for applications requiring high hardness, high hardenability, and increased mechanical performance. These often conflicting requirements necessitated the development of new materials that offer high as-sintered hardness and good static/dynamic mechanical properties without the added expense of a secondary heat treatment. Traditionally, sinter-hardening materials have offered acceptable hardness but at the expense of mechanical properties and sintered density. This paper will document a series of sinter hardening materials that offer good compressibility, high hardness and enhanced mechanical properties. The discussion will focus on utilization of these materials in automotive applications (within both the engine and transmission) such as gears, cams and sprockets that are currently produced by either the press, sinter, and heat treat process or by conventional machining of a casting or wrought material.
Technical Paper

Advances in P/M Gear Materials

Powder Metallurgy is an efficient manufacturing process for the production of gearing and similar net shape components. Because of limitations arising from the inherent porosity and limited alloy systems available, the traditional uses for P/M gearing was in relatively low stress applications. The recent introduction of new compaction techniques and new alloy materials has produced P/M components with significantly higher yield and tensile strengths approaching the strength levels of wrought gearing materials. This paper will review the new P/M processes and materials and their suitability for gear type applications. Mechanical property comparisons will be made to the common automotive gearing materials including ductile and malleable cast irons and wrought low alloy steels.
Technical Paper

42 Volt Architecture on Powder Metallurgy - Opportunities

The 42-Volt electrical system is being introduced in automobiles to provide the extra power needed for various electromagnetic devices. These paper discuses the opportunity offered by the 42Volt for powder metal parts and the challenges. Major opportunities are in motors. A brief discussion of motors and the performance requirements for the magnetic core material used is included. Brushless motor design can benefit the most from insulated iron powder compacts because of the design simplicity of powder metal parts and three dimensional flux capability which is most beneficial in rotating devices.(P/M stands for powder metallurgy and not permanent magnets)