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Journal Article

Wear Properties of Car Engine Shaft in Actual Engine Environment

Abstract When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
Technical Paper

Waza (Skilled Craftsmanship) that Created RA272 Exhaust Pipe used in Formula 1 Race in 1960's

This study attempted to faithfully reproduce and scientifically analyze the process of formation of the exhaust pipe of the winning RA272 engine used in Formula One in the 1960's, using the waza (skills) employed in its fashioning, which have been handed down by its makers. This analysis showed that the manual bending method, used to create the RA272 exhaust pipe, which was filled with sand and bent while being flame-heated, without the use of figures or molds, was superior to the mechanical bending method of that time, from the standpoint of short-term period of production. We have determined that the pipe displays that the microstructure of the material remains stable, even at exhaust temperatures of 700°C to 900°C, and that useful information on the pipe's shape stability and mechanical strength has been provided.
Journal Article

Vibration Reduction in Motors for the SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD

Abstract A new motor has been developed that combines the goals of greater compactness, increased power and a quiet drive. This motor is an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) that combines an interior permanent magnet rotor and a stator with concentrated windings. In addition, development of the motor focused on the slot combination, the shape of the magnetic circuits and the control method all designed to reduce motor noise and vibration. An 8-pole rotor, 12-slot stator combination was employed, and a gradually enlarged air gap configuration was used in the magnetic circuits. The gradually enlarged air gap brings the centers of the rotor and the stator out of alignment, changing the curvature, and continually changing the amount of air gap as the rotor rotates. The use of the gradually enlarged air gap brings torque degradation to a minimum, and significantly reduces torque fluctuation and iron loss of rotor and stator.
Technical Paper

Verification of Influences of Biodiesel Fuel on Automotive Fuel-line Rubber and Plastic Materials

At present, biodiesel fuels using natural-origin materials are expanding in share, and there are many different kinds. Biodiesel fuel generates organic acid when it deteriorates, so care is needed when evaluating the influence of the fuel on automotive fuel-line materials. A model biodiesel fuel was designed taking into account deterioration of the fuel and mixing of impurities into it. Durability of automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials were evaluated by using the model fuel. From the evaluation results, it was found that fluoroelastomer (hereafter referred to as FKM) and polyacetal resin (hereafter referred to as POM) deteriorate depending on specific fuel properties and deterioration state. In this paper, we report evaluating results of biodiesel fuels on the automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials, and the importance of biodiesel fuel property management.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

Abstract Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Utilization of Motor-Driven Gearshift System

Recently, for passenger cars, hand operated gearshift systems have been made available by some manufacturers for the purpose of easy gearshift operation and to make driving more fun. For adapting such a system to an ATV (All Terrain Vehicle), which is used mainly for agriculture and leisure, the whole system should be compact and lightweight. It is also necessary for the clutch to be engaged properly under various running conditions. This gearshift system performs both engaging and disengaging of the clutch and moving the gearshift spindle with one motor. Since this system is controlled by calculated engine speed, vehicle speed and gear position, suitable gear shifting is realized under various running conditions. For optimal clutch control, there is a reversing point for the decreasing and increasing of engine speed for each gearshift. This accelerates the clutch engagement speed and makes quick returning of the gearshift spindle.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Simulations and In-Situ Measurements with X-ray CT Imaging on Liquid Water Transport in PEFCs

Water management is one of the key factors to ensure high performance, cold start and durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), and it is important to understand the behavior of liquid water in PEFCs. X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) imaging and the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (two-phase LBM) are applied to analyze the mechanism of water transport in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the gas channels in generating PEFCs. The results of the two-phase LBM are compared with those of X-ray CT imaging, and are found to agree qualitatively in that water is discharged along the hydrophilic channel wall and accumulated in the GDL, especially under the rib. The effects of the wettability of the GDLs, and of the gas channels, the diameter of the carbon fibers, and the porosity of the GDLs on water discharge from the GDLs and gas channels are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Trend of Bolts for Use in Automobiles and Development of Class 10.9 Low Carbon Boron Steel Bolt

There are strong demands for reduced production costs of ordinary bolts, of which a large number are used throughout automobiles. In addition, there are continued demands for higher performance and lower weight in automobiles. For this reason, there is an increasing trend to develop steel for high strength bolts or to adopt the plastic region tightening method. At present, the principal materials used in high strength bolts of class 10.9 are medium carbon alloy steel. When a low carbon boron steel bolt is used as a class 10.9 bolt under high stress, delayed fracture may occur, so that these cannot always be used for the body and chassis applications. The authors have developed a new low carbon boron steel with increased delayed fracture strength on the same order as that of JIS-SCM435 (equivalent to SAE4135) medium carbon alloy steel. Attention was focused principally on decreasing the amounts of phosphorus and sulfur in the steel.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

Abstract A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
Technical Paper

The background of Electric Vehicle spread

In recent years, Eeletoric Vehicle attracts attention as the favorite in a next-generation car. Various factors called promotion of the problem of drain of a fossil fuel, global warming, and next-generation industry exist in this background. In this paper, by arranging these factors on many sides and carrying out them considers the directivity to which EV should progress.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Journal Article

The Thermal and Aerodynamic Development of a Cooling and Heat Resistance Package for a New Hybrid Sports Car

Abstract A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
Technical Paper

The Structure of an Advanced Independent Rear Toe-Control System

Abstract Honda announced an independent right and left rear toe control system (first generation) in 2013 and presented it as the world's first. As stated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has achieved a balance between an enjoyable driving experience in which handling is performed at the driver's will (“INOMAMA” handling) and stable driving performance.(1) This first generation is optimally designed to the vehicle specifications such as suspension axial force and steering gear ratio of the vehicle to which the system is applied. For more widespread application of independent rear toe control technology, a next generation system (second generation) has been developed, which achieves both cost reduction and flexible system performance which can be adapted to a variety of vehicles. The system development began by setting the required target performance with consideration for adaptation to various car models.
Technical Paper

The Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Metal and It's Application for Engine Block

The weight-saving requirements for automobiles are important. In order to produce a lighter engine, an aluminum block with cast-iron liners and a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy block have been developed. (1)*, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) We developed a new aluminum engine block which has the cylinder bore surface structure reinforced with short ceramic fiber. We also established technology suitable for mass-production including a fiber preform process and a non-destructive inspection method. In this paper, the optimum properties and production technology of MMC engine blocks are introduced. A portion of the paper is dedicated to the results of a comparison study between a new light-weight aluminum engine block, a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon engine block and an aluminum engine block with cast-iron liners.
Journal Article

The Predictive Simulation of Exhaust Pipe Narrow-band Noise

Abstract A method of predictive simulation of flow-induced noise using computational fluid dynamics has been developed. The goal for the developed method was application in the vehicle development process, and the target of the research was therefore set as balancing the realization of a practical level of predictive accuracy and a practical computation time. In order to simulate flow-induced noise, it is necessary to compute detailed eddy flows and changes in the density of the air. In the research discussed in this paper, the occurrence or non-occurrence of flow-induced noise was predicted by conducting unsteady compressible flow calculation using large eddy simulation, a type of turbulence model. The target flow-induced noise for prediction was narrow-band noise, a type of noise in which sound increases in specific frequency ranges.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Speed and Injection Pressure Transients on Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold Start

Results are presented from an experimental study of the effects of engine speed and injection pressure transients on the cold start performance of a gasoline direct injection engine operating on iso-octane. The experiments are performed in an optically-accessible single-cylinder research engine modified for gasoline direct injection operation. In order to isolate the effects of the engine speed and injection pressure transients, three different cold start simulations are used. In the first cold start simulation the engine speed and injection pressure are constant. In the second cold start simulation the injection pressure is constant while the engine speed transient of an actual cold start is simulated. In the third cold start simulation both the engine speed and the injection pressure transients of an actual cold start are simulated.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Technical Paper

The Application of the Statistical Design Support System Toward Optimization of Vehicle Safety Equipmen

The “Statistical Design Support System” produces a new practical optimal design method. It can be used even on nonlinear behavior. The optimization can be carried out with this system using a small number of calculation results. The authors applied it to the design optimization of the occupant restraint system in order to reduce the injury criteria based on the crash simulation. In line with growing interest and improvements in technology on vehicle safety, it will be necessary to consider some different crash situations simultaneously. The authors made an optimal design taking into account the different collision conditions. This paper describes the effectivity analysis and the optimization.