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Technical Paper

Trend of Bolts for Use in Automobiles and Development of Class 10.9 Low Carbon Boron Steel Bolt

1997-02-24
970516
There are strong demands for reduced production costs of ordinary bolts, of which a large number are used throughout automobiles. In addition, there are continued demands for higher performance and lower weight in automobiles. For this reason, there is an increasing trend to develop steel for high strength bolts or to adopt the plastic region tightening method. At present, the principal materials used in high strength bolts of class 10.9 are medium carbon alloy steel. When a low carbon boron steel bolt is used as a class 10.9 bolt under high stress, delayed fracture may occur, so that these cannot always be used for the body and chassis applications. The authors have developed a new low carbon boron steel with increased delayed fracture strength on the same order as that of JIS-SCM435 (equivalent to SAE4135) medium carbon alloy steel. Attention was focused principally on decreasing the amounts of phosphorus and sulfur in the steel.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

1997-02-24
971060
The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

Temperature Prediction of Actual Contact Portion of the Metal Belt CVT

2018-04-03
2018-01-0122
In a previous study by the authors, austenite (γ phase) formed on the topmost of pulleys after long term operation of continuously variable transmission (CVT) [1]. In general, martensite arising from heat treatment forms on the surface of pulleys and gears. Therefore, the sliding surface has a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal structure, and transformation into and existence of austenite (γ phase) is difficult unless there is a thermal history exceeding the eutectoid point. For the verification of that possibility, it was crucial to obtain temperature variation on the sliding surface. The major problem for such measurements was rotation of parts inside an operating CVT. In this study, uniquely developed measurement system enabled non-contact temperature measurement near the contact portion. Results were substituted to heat conduction equation to predict the temperature at the exact contact portion.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Study of Riding Assist Control Enabling Self-standing in Stationary State

2018-04-03
2018-01-0576
In motorcycles traveling at medium to high speed, roll stability is usually maintained by restoration forces generated by a self-steering effect. However, when the vehicle is stationary or traveling in low speed, sufficient restoring force does not occur because some of the forces, such as centrifugal force, become small. In our study, we aimed at prototyping a motorcycle having roll stability when the vehicle is stationary or at low speed with a steering control for self-standing assist, while maintaining stability properties in medium to high speed. A model was built to represent dynamics of roll motion, which is composed of a fixed point mass located above the vehicle’s center of gravity and another movable point mass below that gravity center. According to the model, when steered, the roll moment direction generated by the shift of the movable point mass becomes the same as the direction generated by the ground contact point shift of the front tire.
Technical Paper

Shifting Mechanisms and Variation of Frictional Coefficients for CVT Using Metal Pushing V-Belts

2000-03-06
2000-01-0840
In order to reveal the shifting mechanisms for CVT using a metal pushing V-belt, three shifting rates were introduced. The belt motion in the pulley groove was also characterized using mean coefficients of friction as parameters, which identify the slippage condition of the belt in the pulley groove. The experimental results showed that one of shifting rates, dR/ds was almost constant in the narrowing pulley regardless of both rotational speed and transmitted torque. Here, R is the belt pitch radius in the pulley and s is the length measured along the belt pitch line. This fact indicates that the shifting is primarily governed by elastic deformation of blocks of the belt. Power transmitting states were also evaluated using a different type of lubricating oil whose nominal coefficient of friction was higher than that for the conventional AT oil. The observed mean coefficients of friction vary due to oil although the basic response of the CVT unchanged.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Research Into Surface Improvement for Low Friction Pistons

2005-04-11
2005-01-1647
1 A new surface modification heat treatment technology called Wonder Process Craft which is different from plating and coating, was applied to the skirt section, which is the sliding surface of the piston in an internal combustion engine. This was intended to improve fuel economy and mechanical characteristics by reducing sliding resistance. In the application of solid lubrication, this treatment does not require the usage of binder, which was necessary for conventional coating, leading to the highest level achievable for the low sliding resistance effect inherent of solid lubrication. Since this treatment does not involve any change in significant dimensions, shapes, surface roughness, and so on, applying this treatment is easy. The persistence of the effect, productivity and recyclability of waste and emissions during treatment were also taken into account.
Journal Article

Quantitative Representations of Aerodynamic Effects on Handling Response and Flat Ride of Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0445
The effects of aerodynamic coefficients on handling response and flat ride were quantified. For handling response, the aerodynamic effect was quantified by analysis with linear representation and a two-wheel simulation model, using aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a full scale car wind tunnel. The correlation of aerodynamic coefficients and handling response with driving feel was also ascertained. Aerodynamic yaw moment and side-force were also converted to equivalent front and rear lift to standardize aerodynamic indexes and improve aerodynamic development efficiency. For flat ride, steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects were quantified by analysis with a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper simulation model and aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a 35% scale model wind tunnel and towing tank test. Unsteady aerodynamic force occurrence mechanism was ascertained by unsteady CFD using dynamic mesh.
Journal Article

Prediction of Friction Drive Limit of Metal V-Belt

2015-04-14
2015-01-1138
When fluctuations in the speed of rotation of the drive pulley are transmitted to the driven pulley via the metal V-belt, the transmitted fluctuations become attenuated as friction force approaches a state of saturation. The research discussed in this paper focused on these fluctuations in the speed of rotation and developed an index for the slip state between the belt and the pulleys. The drive and driven pulleys were regarded as a one-dimensional vibrating system connected by elastic bodies, and changes in the state matrix of the system were focused on. It was determined that when all of the eigenvalues in this state matrix become real numbers, slip speed between the belt and the pulleys increases sharply. A method was proposed of estimating this behavior of the eigenvalues from changes in the speed of rotation of the drive and driven pulleys, and indexing the current slip state.
Journal Article

New Theoretical Approach for Weight Reduction on Cylinder Head

2015-04-14
2015-01-0495
Designing a lightweight and durable engine is universally important from the standpoints of fuel economy, vehicle dynamics and cost. However, it is challenging to theoretically find an optimal solution which meets both requirements in products such as the cylinder head, to which various thermal loads and mechanical loads are simultaneously applied. In our research, we focused on “non-parametric optimization” and attempted to establish a new design approach derived from the weight reduction of a cylinder head. Our optimization process consists of topology optimization and shape optimization. In the topology optimization process, we explored an optimal structure with the theoretically-highest stiffness in the given design space. This is to provide an efficient structure for pursuing both lightweight and durable characteristics in the subsequent shape optimization process.
Journal Article

Method of Vehicle Dynamics Analysis by Means of Equivalent Cornering Stiffness for Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

2012-04-16
2012-01-0213
The dynamic performance of a vehicle traveling at high speeds is affected by the aerodynamic characteristics consisting of lift on front and rear axles, side force, and yawing moment. In order to enable consideration of these aerodynamic characteristics from the early stages of the vehicle development process, it is required that the characteristics are replaced by simple development indices. The study discussed in this paper introduced the concept of equivalent cornering stiffness to analyze these aerodynamic characteristics from the viewpoint of vehicle dynamics. Using this method, it is possible to integrate four aerodynamic characteristics into two variables which are very important to vehicle dynamics. As a result, the interaction between each aerodynamic characteristic is simply expressed in the equations of motion. Moreover the aerodynamic characteristics are dealt with as the same variables which are commonly used in other chassis systems such as suspensions and tires.
Journal Article

Manufacturing Technology for Hollow Structure Large Aluminum Parts Production by High Pressure Die Casting (HPDC)

2015-04-14
2015-01-1319
When using aluminum for vehicle body parts to reduce weight, the high pressure die casting (HPDC) is widely applied due to its adaptability to thin-wall products, near-net-shape castability, and short casting cycle time. Since a hollow construction is advantageous to increase stiffness of body parts, there has been a need of development of techniques for casting of hollow parts by HPDC. So far, hollow casting by HPDC has been realized for small parts using sand cores. When applying that method to large parts, however, it is necessary to increase filling speed. When the filling speed is increased, the core tends to break. In this project, we have developed a method to estimate changes of pressure distribution when filling molten metal by the casting simulation in order to analyze damages to the core. Through the analysis, we discovered occurrence of impulsive pressure waves.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2003-03-03
2003-01-1166
A new type of lean NOx catalyst has been developed with improved thermal resistance. This lean NOx catalyst contains precious metals and NO2 adsorbents. The precious metals are used mainly for the oxidation reaction of NO, and the NO2 adsorbents are for the adsorption removal of generated NO2. The thermal resistance of the catalyst was raised by paying attention to the following points. 1) Improvement of thermal resistance for the NO oxidation activity by addition of a different precious metal element. 2) Prevention of thermal degradation of the NO2 adsorbent by addition of a new metal oxide. For item 1, Pd was added to the catalyst which had already included Pt. By having Pd coexist with Pt, the precious metal dispersion was kept high even after heat treatment, so the NO oxidizing ability was improved. For item 2, thermal degradation of NO2 adsorbent was prevented by addition of the new metal oxide (B) to the adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Heat Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2004-03-08
2004-01-1495
When the alkali metal-supported catalyst was treated at 830°C, the NOx conversion decreased because the alkali metals in the catalyst layer gradually moved to the cordierite honeycomb layer and reacted with the cordierite elements. This phenomena decreased to be added the basic metal oxide (α) in the catalyst layer. The improved catalyst with α 2 showed higher performance than the conventional catalyst in the model gas test. Moreover, the emission values of NOx, HC, and CO were 50% or less than Japanese domestic regulation values even after 830°C×60h heat treatment in a vehicle test.
Technical Paper

Fuel Consumption and Power Performance Prediction in Outboard Motors for High-Speed Planing Boats using CFD Simulation

2012-10-23
2012-32-0099
Predicting fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor for a high speed small planing boat are numerically challenging. The propeller is one of the most popular propulsion systems used for outboard motors. We focused our attention on the fact that the thrust performance of a propeller has a major impact on cruising fuel consumption and performance. We believe that we can numerically predict cruising fuel consumption, which has conventionally been estimated through experiential means, using accurate thrust performance measurements via CFD simulation without cavitations model. This study aims to develop a simulator that could quantitatively predict cruising fuel consumption and performance of an outboard motor used for a high speed small planing boat. After comparing the CFD simulation of propellers against the results of model tests, the simulated results are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Lift Force on Vehicle Dynamics in Heave and Pitch Motion

2014-04-01
2014-01-0576
The change in the aerodynamic lift force (henceforth CL) by heave motion is discussed in this paper in order to clarify the effect of aerodynamic characteristics on the vehicle dynamic performance. We considered that phenomenon in actual car running at 160km/h and 1Hz heave frequency. Using a towing tank to change its water from the air to the working fluid to more easily observe this phenomenon. That makes possible to observe the same phenomenon with reduced velocity and small models under same Strouhal number condition. This method can be reducing vehicle speed to 3m/s (1/15 actual) and frequency to 0.2Hz (1/5 actual) in case using 40% scaled model. The results of these tests showed that unsteady CL is proportional to heave motion. These results showed the proportional relationship between unsteady CL and heave motion. The formularization of unsteady CL made it possible to introduce shape coefficients to vehicle dynamics simulations as functions of heave velocity.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Heat Treatment on Corrosion-Related Failure of the Suspension Spring

2015-04-14
2015-01-0518
In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
Technical Paper

Development of the High-Power, Low-Emission Engine for the “Honda S2000”

2000-03-06
2000-01-0670
The two liter DOHC-VTEC engine developed for the Honda S2000 produces 179kW (240HP, which is 120HP per liter). It is the highest output power among all naturally aspirated two liter engines ever mass-produced. It also achieves an exhaust emission level within National LEV standards. The new engine utilizes a redesigned VTEC cylinder head, in which MIM (metal injection molding) rocker arms are used. The new cylinder block with a ladder frame structure for its lower part, a newly developed camshaft drive chain and gear system and a metal honeycomb catalyst with an air pump start-up system are also utilized.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

2013-10-15
2013-32-9045
This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
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