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Technical Paper

Resource-conserving, Heat-resistant Ni-based Alloy for Exhaust Valves

2009-04-20
2009-01-0259
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Research on Technique for Correction of Running Resistance with Focus on Tire Temperature and Tire Thermal Balance Model

2019-04-02
2019-01-0623
At present, measurements of running resistance are conducted outdoors as a matter of course. Because of this, the ambient temperature at the time of the measurements has a considerable impact on the measurement data. The research discussed in this paper focused on the temperature characteristic of the tires and developed a new correction technique using a special rolling test apparatus. Specifically, using a tire rolling test apparatus that made it possible to vary the ambient temperature, measurements were conducted while varying the levels of factors other than temperature that affect rolling resistance (load, inflation pressure, and speed). Next, a regression analysis was applied to the data for each factor, and coefficients for a relational expression were derived, making it possible to derive a quadratic equation for the tire rolling resistance correction formula.
Technical Paper

Research on Low-Friction Properties of High Viscosity Index Petroleum Base Stock and Development of Upgraded Engine Oil

1995-02-01
951036
High viscosity index(HVI) petroleum base stock, with excellent temperature-viscosity characteristics, oxidation resistance, and low-evaporation properties, offers advantages as the base stock for high fuel economy engine oils, particularly because of its low-friction properties in the boundary and/or “E.H.L (Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication)” area due to its rheological characteristics. This research evaluated HVI base stock's low-friction properties. Upgrading the oil from 5W-30 to 5W-20 was also investigated. The friction properties of the HVI base stock were measured by a unit friction platform. The results show a 28% reduction in friction coefficient compared with the conventional, solvent refined oil, which is attributable to the high-pressure viscosity of the base oil.
Technical Paper

Research Into Surface Improvement for Low Friction Pistons

2005-04-11
2005-01-1647
1 A new surface modification heat treatment technology called Wonder Process Craft which is different from plating and coating, was applied to the skirt section, which is the sliding surface of the piston in an internal combustion engine. This was intended to improve fuel economy and mechanical characteristics by reducing sliding resistance. In the application of solid lubrication, this treatment does not require the usage of binder, which was necessary for conventional coating, leading to the highest level achievable for the low sliding resistance effect inherent of solid lubrication. Since this treatment does not involve any change in significant dimensions, shapes, surface roughness, and so on, applying this treatment is easy. The persistence of the effect, productivity and recyclability of waste and emissions during treatment were also taken into account.
Journal Article

Quantitative Representations of Aerodynamic Effects on Handling Response and Flat Ride of Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-0445
The effects of aerodynamic coefficients on handling response and flat ride were quantified. For handling response, the aerodynamic effect was quantified by analysis with linear representation and a two-wheel simulation model, using aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a full scale car wind tunnel. The correlation of aerodynamic coefficients and handling response with driving feel was also ascertained. Aerodynamic yaw moment and side-force were also converted to equivalent front and rear lift to standardize aerodynamic indexes and improve aerodynamic development efficiency. For flat ride, steady and unsteady aerodynamic effects were quantified by analysis with a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper simulation model and aerodynamic coefficients obtained from a 35% scale model wind tunnel and towing tank test. Unsteady aerodynamic force occurrence mechanism was ascertained by unsteady CFD using dynamic mesh.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Water Intrusion into the Engine Air Intake Duct while Running on Flooded Road at the Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-1322
Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
Journal Article

Method of Vehicle Dynamics Analysis by Means of Equivalent Cornering Stiffness for Aerodynamic Forces and Moments

2012-04-16
2012-01-0213
The dynamic performance of a vehicle traveling at high speeds is affected by the aerodynamic characteristics consisting of lift on front and rear axles, side force, and yawing moment. In order to enable consideration of these aerodynamic characteristics from the early stages of the vehicle development process, it is required that the characteristics are replaced by simple development indices. The study discussed in this paper introduced the concept of equivalent cornering stiffness to analyze these aerodynamic characteristics from the viewpoint of vehicle dynamics. Using this method, it is possible to integrate four aerodynamic characteristics into two variables which are very important to vehicle dynamics. As a result, the interaction between each aerodynamic characteristic is simply expressed in the equations of motion. Moreover the aerodynamic characteristics are dealt with as the same variables which are commonly used in other chassis systems such as suspensions and tires.
Technical Paper

Influences of Turbulence Scale on Development of Spherically Propagating Flame under High EGR Conditions

2015-09-01
2015-01-1868
EGR (Exhaust gas recirculation) can reduce the pumping loss and improve the thermal efficiency of spark ignition engines. The techniques for combustion enhancement under high EGR rate condition has been required for further improvement of the thermal efficiency. In order to develop the technique of combustion enhancement by turbulence, the influences of turbulence scale on combustion properties, such as probability of flame propagation, EGR limit of flame propagation, flame quenching and combustion duration were investigated under the condition of same turbulence intensity. Experiments were carried out for stoichiometric spherically propagating turbulent i-C8H18/Air/N2 flames using a constant volume vessel. It was clarified that all of these combustion properties were affected by the turbulence scale. The development of spherically propagating turbulent flame during flame propagation was affected by the turbulence scale.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Resistance for Lean NOx Catalyst

2003-03-03
2003-01-1166
A new type of lean NOx catalyst has been developed with improved thermal resistance. This lean NOx catalyst contains precious metals and NO2 adsorbents. The precious metals are used mainly for the oxidation reaction of NO, and the NO2 adsorbents are for the adsorption removal of generated NO2. The thermal resistance of the catalyst was raised by paying attention to the following points. 1) Improvement of thermal resistance for the NO oxidation activity by addition of a different precious metal element. 2) Prevention of thermal degradation of the NO2 adsorbent by addition of a new metal oxide. For item 1, Pd was added to the catalyst which had already included Pt. By having Pd coexist with Pt, the precious metal dispersion was kept high even after heat treatment, so the NO oxidizing ability was improved. For item 2, thermal degradation of NO2 adsorbent was prevented by addition of the new metal oxide (B) to the adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Analysis in the Development of the 2013 Model Year Accord Hybrid

2015-04-14
2015-01-1534
There is a need to reduce vehicle's running resistance through aerodynamic performance in terms of having less negative impact on the global environment. In the Accord full model change, the package design is changed, so it is an opportunity to propose methods for improving aerodynamic performance. During the preliminary study, phenomenon analyses were conducted to identify areas that have a significant effect on aerodynamics by using a 25% scale model of the previous model. Based on more than 500 variation measurements as parameter study, the analysis was conducted using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A proposal was made to the package design. For development that began with the fundamental frame proposed in preliminary studies, wind tunnel testing using 25% scale model was conducted jointly with the Styling Design Office to achieve enhancement styling while also increasing aerodynamic performance.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Lift Force on Vehicle Dynamics in Heave and Pitch Motion

2014-04-01
2014-01-0576
The change in the aerodynamic lift force (henceforth CL) by heave motion is discussed in this paper in order to clarify the effect of aerodynamic characteristics on the vehicle dynamic performance. We considered that phenomenon in actual car running at 160km/h and 1Hz heave frequency. Using a towing tank to change its water from the air to the working fluid to more easily observe this phenomenon. That makes possible to observe the same phenomenon with reduced velocity and small models under same Strouhal number condition. This method can be reducing vehicle speed to 3m/s (1/15 actual) and frequency to 0.2Hz (1/5 actual) in case using 40% scaled model. The results of these tests showed that unsteady CL is proportional to heave motion. These results showed the proportional relationship between unsteady CL and heave motion. The formularization of unsteady CL made it possible to introduce shape coefficients to vehicle dynamics simulations as functions of heave velocity.
Journal Article

Effect of Surface Heat Treatment on Corrosion-Related Failure of the Suspension Spring

2015-04-14
2015-01-0518
In this research, a new wire material made using surface-reforming heat treatment was developed in order to enhance the corrosion fatigue resistance of suspension springs. The aim of surface reforming is to improve hydrogen embrittlement characteristics through grain refinement and to improve crack propagation resistance by partial softening of hardness. The grain refinement method used an α'→γ reversed transformation by rapid short-term heating in repeated induction heating and quenching (R-IHQ) to refine the crystal grain size of SAE 9254 steel spring wire to 4 μm or less. In order to simultaneously improve the fatigue crack propagation characteristics, the possibility of reducing the hardness immediately below the spring surface layer was also examined. By applying contour hardening in the second IHQ cycle, a heat affected zone (HAZ) is obtained immediately below the surface.
Journal Article

Differences between Air-Dam Spoiler Performances in Wind Tunnel and On-Road Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0609
An air-dam spoiler is commonly used to reduce aerodynamic drag in production vehicles. However, it inexplicably tends to show different performances between wind tunnel and coast-down tests. Neither the reason nor the mechanism has been clarified. We previously reported that an air-dam spoiler contributed to a change in the wake structure behind a vehicle. In this study, to clarify the mechanism, we investigated the coefficient of aerodynamic drag CD reduction effect, wake structure, and underflow under different boundary layer conditions by conducting wind tunnel tests with a rolling road system and constant speed on-road tests. We found that the air-dam spoiler changed the wake structure by deceleration of the underflow under stationary floor conditions. Accordingly, the base pressure was recovered by approximately 30% and, the CD value reduction effect was approximately 10%.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

2015-04-14
2015-01-0519
A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Journal Article

Development of a New Pressure Measurement Technique and PIV to Validate CFD for the Aerodynamics of Full-scale Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-1623
In the early stages of aerodynamic development of commercial vehicles, the aerodynamic concept is balanced with the design concept using CFD. Since this development determines the aerodynamic potential of the vehicle, CFD with high accuracy is needed. To improve its accuracy, spatial resolution of CFD should be based on flow phenomenon. For this purpose, to compare aerodynamic force, pressure profile and velocity vector map derived from CFD with experimental data is important, but there are some difficulties to obtain pressure profile and velocity vector map for actual vehicles. At the point of pressure measurement for vehicles, installation of pressure taps to the surface of vehicle, i.e., fuel tank and battery, is a problem. A new measurement method developed in this study enables measurement of surface pressure of any desired points. Also, the flexibility of its shape and measuring point makes the installation a lot easier than the conventional pressure measurement method.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor with Heavy Rare Earth-Free Magnet for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0600
Conventional HEV motors use neodymium magnets with added heavy rare earths, to realize high output and size reduction. However, deposits of heavy rare earths such as Dysprosium (Dy) and Terbium (Tb) are unevenly distributed, so it is important to reduce the amount used, because of supply issue and material cost. In this paper, the application of a heavy rare earth-free magnet is considered on the new motor for a two-motor hybrid system. Compared to conventional neodymium magnets, heavy rare earth free magnets tend to have low coercivity. Also, heavy rare earth-free magnet have low thermal durability, so it is not easy to apply them to motors for a two-motor hybrid system, which requires high output and small size. The motor requires twice as much torque and six times output than one-motor hybrid system. Increase demagnetization resistance and magnet cooling performance is studied by development of the new motor.
Journal Article

Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0023
Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Die-Cast Parts for Welded Structure Manufactured by the Transition Flow Filling

1999-09-28
1999-01-3297
In general, welding of high-pressure die casting (DC) parts has been difficult due to gases trapped in the castings. This is a result of the high-speed turbulent flow condition of the DC process. These gases are liberated during welding and produce porosity in the weld joint. The Author had found the range where an enough welding quality was obtained without great drop in castability to the middle of the laminar flow and turbulent flow. This range has been defined as the transition zone. Moreover high strength Al-Mg-Ni alloy was developed by non-heat-treatment. The Transition Flow Filling Method(TFFM) has been developed, that can not only reduce the amount of trapped gases but also is applicable to standard high pressure die casting equipment. With this method, high quality DC parts can be produced that are weldable, strong and have high toughness.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Composites for Cylinder Liners

1994-03-01
940847
There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Technical Paper

Designing for Turbine Housing Weight Reduction Using Thermal Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction Technology

2019-04-02
2019-01-0533
Turbine housings in car engine turbochargers, which use costly stainless steel castings, account for nearly 50% of the parts cost of a turbocharger. They are also the component which controls the competitiveness of the turbocharger, in terms of both function and cost. In this research, focusing on thermal fatigue resistance which is one of the main functions demanded of a turbine housing, achieving reduction in wall thickness while securing sufficient thermal fatigue resistance, it is possible to reduce the amount of material used in the turbine housing and aimed for cost reduction. Therefore, we built a method to quantitatively predict, using 3D FEM, the lifespan from the initiation of thermal fatigue cracking to the formation of a penetrating crack which leads to gas leakage.
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