Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

Vibration Reduction in Motors for the SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD

2015-04-14
2015-01-1206
A new motor has been developed that combines the goals of greater compactness, increased power and a quiet drive. This motor is an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) that combines an interior permanent magnet rotor and a stator with concentrated windings. In addition, development of the motor focused on the slot combination, the shape of the magnetic circuits and the control method all designed to reduce motor noise and vibration. An 8-pole rotor, 12-slot stator combination was employed, and a gradually enlarged air gap configuration was used in the magnetic circuits. The gradually enlarged air gap brings the centers of the rotor and the stator out of alignment, changing the curvature, and continually changing the amount of air gap as the rotor rotates. The use of the gradually enlarged air gap brings torque degradation to a minimum, and significantly reduces torque fluctuation and iron loss of rotor and stator.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

2015-04-14
2015-01-0750
Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Two-Phase Lattice Boltzmann Simulations and In-Situ Measurements with X-ray CT Imaging on Liquid Water Transport in PEFCs

2011-04-12
2011-01-1347
Water management is one of the key factors to ensure high performance, cold start and durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), and it is important to understand the behavior of liquid water in PEFCs. X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) imaging and the two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (two-phase LBM) are applied to analyze the mechanism of water transport in the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and the gas channels in generating PEFCs. The results of the two-phase LBM are compared with those of X-ray CT imaging, and are found to agree qualitatively in that water is discharged along the hydrophilic channel wall and accumulated in the GDL, especially under the rib. The effects of the wettability of the GDLs, and of the gas channels, the diameter of the carbon fibers, and the porosity of the GDLs on water discharge from the GDLs and gas channels are also investigated.
Technical Paper

Trend of Bolts for Use in Automobiles and Development of Class 10.9 Low Carbon Boron Steel Bolt

1997-02-24
970516
There are strong demands for reduced production costs of ordinary bolts, of which a large number are used throughout automobiles. In addition, there are continued demands for higher performance and lower weight in automobiles. For this reason, there is an increasing trend to develop steel for high strength bolts or to adopt the plastic region tightening method. At present, the principal materials used in high strength bolts of class 10.9 are medium carbon alloy steel. When a low carbon boron steel bolt is used as a class 10.9 bolt under high stress, delayed fracture may occur, so that these cannot always be used for the body and chassis applications. The authors have developed a new low carbon boron steel with increased delayed fracture strength on the same order as that of JIS-SCM435 (equivalent to SAE4135) medium carbon alloy steel. Attention was focused principally on decreasing the amounts of phosphorus and sulfur in the steel.
Technical Paper

The Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Metal and It's Application for Engine Block

1989-02-01
890557
The weight-saving requirements for automobiles are important. In order to produce a lighter engine, an aluminum block with cast-iron liners and a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy block have been developed. (1)*, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) We developed a new aluminum engine block which has the cylinder bore surface structure reinforced with short ceramic fiber. We also established technology suitable for mass-production including a fiber preform process and a non-destructive inspection method. In this paper, the optimum properties and production technology of MMC engine blocks are introduced. A portion of the paper is dedicated to the results of a comparison study between a new light-weight aluminum engine block, a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon engine block and an aluminum engine block with cast-iron liners.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

1997-02-24
971060
The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

2015-09-27
2015-01-2696
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Technical Paper

Technology to Enhance Deep-Drawability by Strain Dispersion Using Stress Relaxation Phenomenon

2015-04-14
2015-01-0531
When the strain is temporarily stopped during tensile testing of a metal, a stress relaxation phenomenon is known to occur whereby the stress diminishes with the passage of time. This phenomenon has been explained as the change of elastic strain into plastic strain. A technique was devised for deliberately causing strain dispersion to occur by applying the stress relaxation phenomenon during stamping. A new step motion that pause the die during forming was devised; it succeeded in modifying the deep-draw forming limit by a maximum of 40%. This new technique was verified through tensile and actual stamping tests. It was confirmed that the use of step motion causes the strain to disperse, thereby modifying the deep draw forming limit. The degree to which the forming limit is modified is dependent on the stop time and the temperature. Step motion technology increases the stampability of high-strength, forming-resistant materials and allows for expanded application of these materials.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 2, Cooling Using Heat Pipes

2015-04-14
2015-01-1649
In our preceding report [1], we showed that the thermal conductivity of a heat pipe dramatically improves during high-speed reciprocation. However, this cooling method has rarely been applied to car engine pistons because the thermal conductivity of commercially available heat pipes does not increase easily even if the pipe is subjected to high-speed reciprocation. In consideration of the data from our preceding report, we decided to investigate heat pipe designs for car engine pistons, propose an optimum design, and conduct thermal analysis of the design. As a result, we found that it is possible to transport heat from the central piston head area, where cooling is most needed, to the piston skirt area, suggesting the possibility of efficient cooling.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 1, Basic Test for Achieving High Heat Transfer Coefficient

2015-04-14
2015-01-1653
Car engine piston cooling is an important technology for improving the compression ratio and suppressing the deformation of pistons. It is well known that thermal conductivity improves dramatically through the use of heat pipes in computers and air conditioners. However, the heat pipes in general use have not been used for the cooling of engines because the flow of gas and liquid is disturbed by vibration and the thermal conductivity becomes excessively low. We therefore developed an original heat pipe and conducted an experiment to determine its heat transfer coefficient using a high-speed reciprocation testing apparatus. Although the test was based on a single heat pipe unit, we succeeded in improving the heat transfer coefficient during high-speed reciprocation by a factor of 1.6 compared to the heat transfer coefficient at standstill. This report describes the observed characteristics and the method of verification.
Journal Article

Study on Wheel Stiffness Considering Balance between Driving Stability and Weight

2015-04-14
2015-01-1755
This paper studies various wheel stiffness configurations, with the aim of enhancing driving stability while minimizing the increase in weight associated with an increase in stiffness. Reinforcement was added to the wheel disk and the wheel rim of standard aluminum wheels for passenger vehicles in order to produce four wheels with different stiffness configurations. The effects of disk stiffness and rim stiffness on tire contact patch profiles and driving stability were quantitatively evaluated. From the results of tests with the four wheels, it was observed that disk stiffness and rim stiffness have differing effects on tire contact patch profiles, and on driving stability. Disk stiffness influences especially tire contact patch length, and tire contact patch length influences especially maneuverability in driving stability. Rim stiffness influences especially tire contact patch area, and tire contact patch area influences especially stability in driving stability.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Valve Timing System Using Electromagnetic Mechanism

2004-06-08
2004-01-1869
In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to a non-throttling technology that is expected to contribute to a reduction in fuel consumption. This paper describes a study on the technology behind the electromagnetic variable valve timing mechanism (electromagnetic valve mechanism). The electromagnetic valve mechanism ensures highly efficient and stable valve opening/closing control. The detailed information and findings will be described in the main body. In addition, the advantages of the mechanism's application to a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI engine) will also be described.
Technical Paper

Study on Reduction of Timing Chain Friction Using Multi-Body Dynamics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0412
A method for reducing friction loss in the engine timing chain was investigated using multi-body dynamics simulation. The method known as the link-by-link model was employed in the simulation to enable representation of the behavior of each single link of the chain and its friction due to contact. In order to predict the friction under actual engine operating conditions, a model that takes camshaft torque fluctuation and crankshaft rotational speed fluctuation into account was created. This simulation was used to verify the detailed distribution of friction in each part of the chain system as well as the changes of friction in the time domain. As a result, it was found that the sliding friction in the chain tensioner guide and chain guide was larger than in other locations. Based on this result, a method of reducing friction entirely by measures in mechanisms and structures without relying on low-friction materials was investigated.
Technical Paper

Study on Low NOX Emission Control Using Newly Developed Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0239
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For lean-burn diesel engines, since it is not possible to use three-way catalytic converters, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows more efficient reduction of NOX than its conventional counterparts. However, an appropriate switching control between lean and rich mixture conditions along with compensation for catalyst deterioration was necessary.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

2006-04-03
2006-01-0180
As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1933
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Journal Article

Study of the Mechanism of Accessory Drive Belt Noise

2009-04-20
2009-01-0186
The mechanism of noise production in engine accessory drive belts was discussed. Applying geometric considerations to the transversal vibration of the belt, which is one cause of belt noise, the research showed that vibration of the belt is affected by fluctuations in the rotational speed of the crankshaft, and that the amplitude of the vibrations fluctuates cyclically. The cycle of this amplitude fluctuation is synchronous with engine speed, and for a 3-cylinder gasoline engine, its frequency is the (1.5*n)th engine rotation order. The spectrum pattern of belt vibration therefore shows components of the natural frequency±(1.5*n)th orders. The research demonstrated that at engine speeds at which the natural frequency±(1.5*n)th orders and the (1.5*n)th order frequencies, the engine excitation orders, are identical, multiple engine orders excite resonance in the belt, producing a high degree of belt vibration.
Technical Paper

Study of Self-induced Vibration in an Operating Metal Pushing V-belt CVT

2012-04-16
2012-01-0309
The mechanism of vibration in a metal pushing V-belt was analyzed using a simulation of the dynamic behavior of the belt in order to identify measures in response to unexpected noise occurring during CVT development. The results showed that the unexpected noise originated in self-induced vibration occurring when the elements of the belt moved in the radial direction close to the exit of the drive pulley. This paper will also discuss the realization of a method of reducing the unexpected noise.
Technical Paper

Study of Power Generation Loss Decrease in Small Gas Engine Cogeneration

2008-09-09
2008-32-0044
Power generation systems employed in small gas engine cogeneration were examined to compare losses in the converter, which converts three-phase alternator power to direct current (DC) voltage, and losses in the inverter, which converts power to high-quality alternating current (AC) voltage that can be connected into electric utility power lines. It is a characteristic of alternators that their efficiency and output voltage decline in the heavy load range. It was found, therefore, that step-down methods using thyristors operate in a low-efficiency range in order to provide a satisfactory supply of the targeted DC output voltage. Use of switching regulator methods, on the other hand, can generate the target voltage by regulating a switching device after first storing the alternator output in a choke coil. It was found, therefore, that these use the high-efficiency range of the alternator. The converter was found to have a resulting loss decrease of 19.4 W.
Technical Paper

Study of Piston Pin Noise of Semi-Floating System

2012-04-16
2012-01-0889
This paper summarizes the piston pin noise mechanism and show the way to reduce noise level of semi-floating system. A mechanism of piston pin noise of semi-floating system was clarified by measurement of piston and piston pin behavior and visualization of engine oil mist around piston and piston pin. Piston and piston pin behavior was measured by accelerometer and eddy current type gap sensor with linkage system at the actual engine running condition. Engine oil behavior was visualized and measured its flow vector by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). For PTV, engine oil mist particle image was taken by high speed camera with fiber scope attached to linkage system. From themeasurement, it was cleared that engine oil doesn't reach to piston hole from undersurface of piston land and come rushing out from piston broach via groove. The result shows that lacking of engine oil between piston and piston pin makes noise larger.
X