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Journal Article

Wear Properties of Car Engine Shaft in Actual Engine Environment

2015-04-14
2015-01-0686
When evaluating the wear properties of slide bearings for car engines, it is a common practice to conduct long-term physical test using a bearing tester for screening purposes according to the revolution speed of the shaft, supply oil temperature and bearing pressure experienced in the actual use of engines. The loading waveform applied depends on the capability of the tester that is loaded, and it is often difficult to apply a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines. To design an engine that is more compact or lighter, it is necessary to reduce the dimensions of slide bearings and the distance between bearings. This requires loading tests on a newly designed engine by applying a loading waveform equivalent to that of actual engines to slide bearings and their vicinity before conducting a firing test. We therefore conducted an engine firing test by attaching thin-film sensors to the slide bearing part of the engine and measured the actual load distribution.
Technical Paper

Waza (Skilled Craftsmanship) that Created RA272 Exhaust Pipe used in Formula 1 Race in 1960's

2008-04-14
2008-01-0547
This study attempted to faithfully reproduce and scientifically analyze the process of formation of the exhaust pipe of the winning RA272 engine used in Formula One in the 1960's, using the waza (skills) employed in its fashioning, which have been handed down by its makers. This analysis showed that the manual bending method, used to create the RA272 exhaust pipe, which was filled with sand and bent while being flame-heated, without the use of figures or molds, was superior to the mechanical bending method of that time, from the standpoint of short-term period of production. We have determined that the pipe displays that the microstructure of the material remains stable, even at exhaust temperatures of 700°C to 900°C, and that useful information on the pipe's shape stability and mechanical strength has been provided.
Journal Article

Vibration Reduction in Motors for the SPORT HYBRID SH-AWD

2015-04-14
2015-01-1206
A new motor has been developed that combines the goals of greater compactness, increased power and a quiet drive. This motor is an interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPM motor) that combines an interior permanent magnet rotor and a stator with concentrated windings. In addition, development of the motor focused on the slot combination, the shape of the magnetic circuits and the control method all designed to reduce motor noise and vibration. An 8-pole rotor, 12-slot stator combination was employed, and a gradually enlarged air gap configuration was used in the magnetic circuits. The gradually enlarged air gap brings the centers of the rotor and the stator out of alignment, changing the curvature, and continually changing the amount of air gap as the rotor rotates. The use of the gradually enlarged air gap brings torque degradation to a minimum, and significantly reduces torque fluctuation and iron loss of rotor and stator.
Technical Paper

Trend of Bolts for Use in Automobiles and Development of Class 10.9 Low Carbon Boron Steel Bolt

1997-02-24
970516
There are strong demands for reduced production costs of ordinary bolts, of which a large number are used throughout automobiles. In addition, there are continued demands for higher performance and lower weight in automobiles. For this reason, there is an increasing trend to develop steel for high strength bolts or to adopt the plastic region tightening method. At present, the principal materials used in high strength bolts of class 10.9 are medium carbon alloy steel. When a low carbon boron steel bolt is used as a class 10.9 bolt under high stress, delayed fracture may occur, so that these cannot always be used for the body and chassis applications. The authors have developed a new low carbon boron steel with increased delayed fracture strength on the same order as that of JIS-SCM435 (equivalent to SAE4135) medium carbon alloy steel. Attention was focused principally on decreasing the amounts of phosphorus and sulfur in the steel.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1223
A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0008
In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Technical Paper

The Structure of an Advanced Independent Rear Toe-Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1499
Honda announced an independent right and left rear toe control system (first generation) in 2013 and presented it as the world's first. As stated in a previous paper, “Independent Left and Right Rear Toe Control System,” with this system Honda has achieved a balance between an enjoyable driving experience in which handling is performed at the driver's will (“INOMAMA” handling) and stable driving performance.(1) This first generation is optimally designed to the vehicle specifications such as suspension axial force and steering gear ratio of the vehicle to which the system is applied. For more widespread application of independent rear toe control technology, a next generation system (second generation) has been developed, which achieves both cost reduction and flexible system performance which can be adapted to a variety of vehicles. The system development began by setting the required target performance with consideration for adaptation to various car models.
Journal Article

The Predictive Simulation of Exhaust Pipe Narrow-band Noise

2015-04-14
2015-01-1329
A method of predictive simulation of flow-induced noise using computational fluid dynamics has been developed. The goal for the developed method was application in the vehicle development process, and the target of the research was therefore set as balancing the realization of a practical level of predictive accuracy and a practical computation time. In order to simulate flow-induced noise, it is necessary to compute detailed eddy flows and changes in the density of the air. In the research discussed in this paper, the occurrence or non-occurrence of flow-induced noise was predicted by conducting unsteady compressible flow calculation using large eddy simulation, a type of turbulence model. The target flow-induced noise for prediction was narrow-band noise, a type of noise in which sound increases in specific frequency ranges.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

2018-10-30
2018-32-0052
In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Study on Low NOX Emission Control Using Newly Developed Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0239
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For lean-burn diesel engines, since it is not possible to use three-way catalytic converters, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows more efficient reduction of NOX than its conventional counterparts. However, an appropriate switching control between lean and rich mixture conditions along with compensation for catalyst deterioration was necessary.
Technical Paper

Study on Emission Reducing Method with New Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

2007-07-23
2007-01-1933
In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For diesel engines, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge.[1],[2],[3],[4]. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows the effective reduction of NOX. However, in order to realize cleaner emission gases, precise engine control in response to the state of the exhaust aftertreatment system is essential.
Technical Paper

Study of an Aftertreatment System for HLSI Lean-burn Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0945
Lean-burn is an effective means of reducing CO2 emissions. To date, Homogenous Lean Charge Spark Ignition (HLSI) combustion, which lowers emissions of both CO2 and NOx, has been studied. Although HLSI realizes lower emission, it is a major challenge for lean-burn engines to meet SULEV regulations, so we have developed a new aftertreatment system for HLSI engines. It consists of three types of catalysts that have different functions, as well as special engine control methods. As the first stage in achieving SULEV emissions, this study focused on enhancing performance under lean conditions. HLSI engine exhaust gases contain high concentrations of hydrocarbons, including a large amount of paraffin, which are difficult to purify, rather than low concentrations of NOx. Therefore, the key point in low emissions is to purify not only NOx, but also high concentrations of paraffin at the same time.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

2005-10-12
2005-32-0034
Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.
Journal Article

Strength Analysis of a Cylinder Head Gasket Using Computer Simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0197
The properties sought in a multi-layer steel cylinder head gasket include cylinder pressure sealing and fatigue strength in order for there to be no damage while the engine is in operation. Diesel engines, in particular, have high cylinder pressure and a high axial tension by the cylinder head bolt demanding severe environment to the gaskets. As engine performance is enhanced, there are cases when cracks develop in the gasket plate, necessitating countermeasures. The cause of cracking in a flat center plate, in particular, has not yet been explained, and no method for evaluation had previously existed. Three-dimensional non-linear finite element calculation was therefore performed to verify the cause. First, a static pressurization rig test was used and the amount of strain was measured to confirm the validity of the calculations. Then the same method of calculation was used to verify the distribution of strain, with a focus on the plate position.
Journal Article

Simulation of Fuel Economy Effectiveness of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Thermoelectric Generator in a Series Hybrid

2011-04-12
2011-01-1335
Simulation was employed to estimate the fuel economy enhancement from the application of an exhaust heat recovery system using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a series hybrid. The properties of the thermoelectric elements were obtained by self-assessment and set as the conditions for estimating the fuel economy. It was concluded that applying exhaust system insulation and forming the appropriate combination of elements with differing temperature properties inside the TEG could yield an enhancement of about 3% in fuel economy. An actual vehicle was also used to verify the calculation elements in the fuel economy simulation, and their reliability was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Resource-conserving, Heat-resistant Ni-based Alloy for Exhaust Valves

2009-04-20
2009-01-0259
Conventionally, the Ni-based superalloys NCF3015 (30Ni-15Cr) and the high nickel content NCF440 (70Ni-19Cr) (with its outstanding wear resistance and corrosion resistance), have been used as engine exhaust valve materials. In recent years, automobile exhaust gases have become hotter because of exhaust gas regulations and enhanced fuel consumption efficiency. Resource conservation and cost reductions also factor into global environmental challenges. To meet these requirements, NCF5015 (50Ni-15Cr), a new resource-conserving, low-cost Ni-based heat-resistant alloy with similar high-temperature strength and wear resistance as NCF440, has been developed. NCF5015's ability to simultaneously provide wear resistance, corrosion resistance and strength when NCF5015 is used with diesel engines was verified and the material was then used in exhaust valves.
Technical Paper

Research on Variable-Speed Brake Control in Multiple-Collision Automatic Braking

2015-04-14
2015-01-1410
According to the North American National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS), approximately one-half of all accidents during driving are of the secondary collision pattern in which the collision event involves the occurrence of secondary collision. Accidents involving impact to a stopped vehicle (chain-reaction collisions) have increased to approximately 3% of all accidents in North America, and although the rate of serious injury is low, cases have been reported of accidents in which cervical sprain occurs as an after-effect[1]. In order to mitigate these circumstances, research has been conducted on systems of automatic braking for collisions. These systems apply brakes automatically when a first collision has been detected in order to avoid or lessen a second collision. Research on automatic collision braking systems, however, has not examined the multiple collisions parked [1, 2].
Technical Paper

Research on Measurement and Simulation Technology of Valve Behavior during Engine Firing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0743
A measurement method for valve behavior during engine firing is established. In order to grasp valve behavior accurately, it has been required to develop a measurement method for valve behavior that takes in account for the condition during engine firing. However, behaviors of a valve train have generally been analyzed during engine motoring because it is difficult to measure them during engine firing. In this study, valve behavior during engine firing can be measured accurately by attaching a gap sensor to the valve guide. Furthermore, the simulation system for valve behavior that treated the valve train as three-dimensional flexible body is built. Under engine motoring condition, high correlation between measurement and simulation is confirmed for valve behavior and spring stress.
Technical Paper

Research of Steering Grasping to Take over Driver from System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1068
Lane departure prevention systems are able to detect imminent departure from the road, allowing the driver to apply control to prevent lane departure. These systems possess enormous potential to reduce the number of accidents resulting from road departure, but their effectiveness is highly reliant on their level of acceptance by drivers. The effectiveness of the systems will depend on when they are providing driving assistance, what level of laxness in terms of maintaining contact with the steering wheel is allowed on the part of the driver, and what level of assistance the system provides. This paper will discuss research on the minimum necessary contact and contact strength with the steering wheel on the part of the driver when a lane departure prevention system is in operation.
Technical Paper

Research of Atomization Phenomena in HPDC-Step 1 Feature of Gas Porosity Dispersion and Photography of Atomized Flow

2018-04-03
2018-01-1392
In recent years, studies have been conducted on the relationship between the J factor, which indicates flow of molten aluminum at the time of injection, and the quality of HPDC products. The flow of molten metal at a high J factor is referred to as “Atomized Flow.” The authors and others conducted studies on the relationship between the J factor and the strength of HPDC products. An area exceeding 300MPa was found in the product produced at a high J factor corresponding to the “Atomized Flow.” The defect was less in the above-mentioned position because the gas porosity was finely dispersed. Considering that the fine dispersion of gas porosity is related to the “Atomized Flow”, pictures were taken to analyze “Atomized Flow.” The molten aluminum was ejected into an open space at a high speed and the splashed conditions were photographed. From the images taken by the pulse laser permeation, the conditions of microscopic atomized flow were observed precisely.
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