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Technical Paper

Waza (Skilled Craftsmanship) that Created RA272 Exhaust Pipe used in Formula 1 Race in 1960's

This study attempted to faithfully reproduce and scientifically analyze the process of formation of the exhaust pipe of the winning RA272 engine used in Formula One in the 1960's, using the waza (skills) employed in its fashioning, which have been handed down by its makers. This analysis showed that the manual bending method, used to create the RA272 exhaust pipe, which was filled with sand and bent while being flame-heated, without the use of figures or molds, was superior to the mechanical bending method of that time, from the standpoint of short-term period of production. We have determined that the pipe displays that the microstructure of the material remains stable, even at exhaust temperatures of 700°C to 900°C, and that useful information on the pipe's shape stability and mechanical strength has been provided.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
Journal Article

The Thermal and Aerodynamic Development of a Cooling and Heat Resistance Package for a New Hybrid Sports Car

A sports car exhibits many challenges from an aerodynamic point of view: drag that limits top speed, lift - or down force - and balance that affects handling, brake cooling and insuring that the heat exchangers have enough air flowing through them under several vehicle speeds and ambient conditions. All of which must be balanced with a sports car styling and esthetic. Since this sports car applies two electric motors to drive front axle and a high-rev V6 turbo charged engine in series with a 9-speed double-clutch transmission and one electric motor to drive rear axle, additional cooling was required, yielding a total of ten air cooled-heat exchangers. It is also a challenge to introduce cooling air into the rear engine room to protect the car under severe thermal conditions. This paper focuses on the cooling and heat resistance concept.
Technical Paper

The Properties of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Metal and It's Application for Engine Block

The weight-saving requirements for automobiles are important. In order to produce a lighter engine, an aluminum block with cast-iron liners and a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy block have been developed. (1)*, (2), (3), (4), (5), (6) We developed a new aluminum engine block which has the cylinder bore surface structure reinforced with short ceramic fiber. We also established technology suitable for mass-production including a fiber preform process and a non-destructive inspection method. In this paper, the optimum properties and production technology of MMC engine blocks are introduced. A portion of the paper is dedicated to the results of a comparison study between a new light-weight aluminum engine block, a hypereutectic aluminum-silicon engine block and an aluminum engine block with cast-iron liners.
Journal Article

The Predictive Simulation of Exhaust Pipe Narrow-band Noise

A method of predictive simulation of flow-induced noise using computational fluid dynamics has been developed. The goal for the developed method was application in the vehicle development process, and the target of the research was therefore set as balancing the realization of a practical level of predictive accuracy and a practical computation time. In order to simulate flow-induced noise, it is necessary to compute detailed eddy flows and changes in the density of the air. In the research discussed in this paper, the occurrence or non-occurrence of flow-induced noise was predicted by conducting unsteady compressible flow calculation using large eddy simulation, a type of turbulence model. The target flow-induced noise for prediction was narrow-band noise, a type of noise in which sound increases in specific frequency ranges.
Technical Paper

The Effects on Motorcycle Behavior of the Moment of Inertia of the Crankshaft

The moment of inertia of the crankshaft cannot be ignored when analyzing the dynamics of a motorcycle. In this research, the tire friction force (calculated by drag and tire side force) was used as an index of the drive performance. The ratio of roll rate and steering torque (here after referred to as a roll rate gain) was used as an index of the cornering performance, and it was analyzed as the influence of the moment of inertia of a crankshaft on the drive performance as well as cornering performance. As a result, the influence on drive performance and cornering performance by the moment of inertia has been found.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

Temperature Prediction of Actual Contact Portion of the Metal Belt CVT

In a previous study by the authors, austenite (γ phase) formed on the topmost of pulleys after long term operation of continuously variable transmission (CVT) [1]. In general, martensite arising from heat treatment forms on the surface of pulleys and gears. Therefore, the sliding surface has a body-centered cubic (BCC) metal structure, and transformation into and existence of austenite (γ phase) is difficult unless there is a thermal history exceeding the eutectoid point. For the verification of that possibility, it was crucial to obtain temperature variation on the sliding surface. The major problem for such measurements was rotation of parts inside an operating CVT. In this study, uniquely developed measurement system enabled non-contact temperature measurement near the contact portion. Results were substituted to heat conduction equation to predict the temperature at the exact contact portion.
Technical Paper

Technology to Enhance Deep-Drawability by Strain Dispersion Using Stress Relaxation Phenomenon

When the strain is temporarily stopped during tensile testing of a metal, a stress relaxation phenomenon is known to occur whereby the stress diminishes with the passage of time. This phenomenon has been explained as the change of elastic strain into plastic strain. A technique was devised for deliberately causing strain dispersion to occur by applying the stress relaxation phenomenon during stamping. A new step motion that pause the die during forming was devised; it succeeded in modifying the deep-draw forming limit by a maximum of 40%. This new technique was verified through tensile and actual stamping tests. It was confirmed that the use of step motion causes the strain to disperse, thereby modifying the deep draw forming limit. The degree to which the forming limit is modified is dependent on the stop time and the temperature. Step motion technology increases the stampability of high-strength, forming-resistant materials and allows for expanded application of these materials.
Technical Paper

Technologies for Practical Application of a TBW System for Large Motorcycle with Improved Driving Feel, Sound Quality, and Layout Flexibility

Honda R&D has developed a throttle-by-wire (TBW) system that meets the needs of motorcycles where the attitude of the vehicle body is controlled by operation of the throttle. To gain high response and following for the throttle valve, we employed a new adaptive control algorithm. The newly developed system has an idling combustion stabilization function and a three-dimensional control function for the throttle-opening map based on running gear and engine speed. With those functions, we improved the controllability of the motorcycle, especially for small throttle openings. Furthermore, we improved the feeling of the limiter control used in maximum-speed limitation. For the overall system, intake system related devices are consolidated to improve the layout flexibility and expand the mounting options on the motorcycle.
Journal Article

Technique for Predicting Powertrain Self-Excited Vibration at Vehicle Start-Up

A clutch FEM model was created to quantitatively understand the operation and dynamic friction characteristics of the facing materials. And a simulation model for dynamic behavior analysis of the torque transmission characteristics from a transmission that incorporates drivetrain damping characteristics to the vehicle body was constructed. The data of the actual vehicle was also measured when vibration occurs and loss torque is generated by friction in the drivetrain, and damping characteristics were determined from the measurement values. In order to confirm the usefulness of this method, the construction of a clutch that suppresses self-excited vibration was examined by simulation and the reduction of vibration in an actual vehicle was confirmed.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 2, Cooling Using Heat Pipes

In our preceding report [1], we showed that the thermal conductivity of a heat pipe dramatically improves during high-speed reciprocation. However, this cooling method has rarely been applied to car engine pistons because the thermal conductivity of commercially available heat pipes does not increase easily even if the pipe is subjected to high-speed reciprocation. In consideration of the data from our preceding report, we decided to investigate heat pipe designs for car engine pistons, propose an optimum design, and conduct thermal analysis of the design. As a result, we found that it is possible to transport heat from the central piston head area, where cooling is most needed, to the piston skirt area, suggesting the possibility of efficient cooling.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 1, Basic Test for Achieving High Heat Transfer Coefficient

Car engine piston cooling is an important technology for improving the compression ratio and suppressing the deformation of pistons. It is well known that thermal conductivity improves dramatically through the use of heat pipes in computers and air conditioners. However, the heat pipes in general use have not been used for the cooling of engines because the flow of gas and liquid is disturbed by vibration and the thermal conductivity becomes excessively low. We therefore developed an original heat pipe and conducted an experiment to determine its heat transfer coefficient using a high-speed reciprocation testing apparatus. Although the test was based on a single heat pipe unit, we succeeded in improving the heat transfer coefficient during high-speed reciprocation by a factor of 1.6 compared to the heat transfer coefficient at standstill. This report describes the observed characteristics and the method of verification.
Technical Paper

Study on Weave Behavior Simulation of Motorcycles Considering Vibration Characteristics of Whole Body of Rider

In motorcycles, the mass difference between a vehicle and a rider is small and motions of a rider impose a great influence on the vehicle behaviors as a consequence. Therefore, dynamic properties of motorcycles should be evaluated not merely dealing with a vehicle but considering with a man-machine system. In the studies of a simulation for vehicle dynamics, various types of rider models have been proposed and it has already been reported that rider motions have a significant influence on the dynamic properties. However, the mechanism of the interaction between a rider and a vehicle has not been clarified yet. In our study, we focused on weave motion and constructed a full vehicle simulation model that can reflect the influences of the movements of the rider’s upper body and lower body. To construct the rider model, we first measured the vibrational characteristics of a human body using a vibration test bench.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Valve Timing System Using Electromagnetic Mechanism

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to a non-throttling technology that is expected to contribute to a reduction in fuel consumption. This paper describes a study on the technology behind the electromagnetic variable valve timing mechanism (electromagnetic valve mechanism). The electromagnetic valve mechanism ensures highly efficient and stable valve opening/closing control. The detailed information and findings will be described in the main body. In addition, the advantages of the mechanism's application to a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI engine) will also be described.
Technical Paper

Study on Reduction of Timing Chain Friction Using Multi-Body Dynamics

A method for reducing friction loss in the engine timing chain was investigated using multi-body dynamics simulation. The method known as the link-by-link model was employed in the simulation to enable representation of the behavior of each single link of the chain and its friction due to contact. In order to predict the friction under actual engine operating conditions, a model that takes camshaft torque fluctuation and crankshaft rotational speed fluctuation into account was created. This simulation was used to verify the detailed distribution of friction in each part of the chain system as well as the changes of friction in the time domain. As a result, it was found that the sliding friction in the chain tensioner guide and chain guide was larger than in other locations. Based on this result, a method of reducing friction entirely by measures in mechanisms and structures without relying on low-friction materials was investigated.
Technical Paper

Study on Low NOX Emission Control Using Newly Developed Lean NOX Catalyst for Diesel Engines

In recent years, emission regulations have become more stringent as a result of increased environmental awareness in each region of the world. For lean-burn diesel engines, since it is not possible to use three-way catalytic converters, reducing NOX emissions is a difficult technical challenge. To respond to these strict regulations, an exhaust gas aftertreatment system was developed, featuring a lean NOX catalyst (LNC) that uses a new chemical reaction mechanism to reduce NOX. The feature of the new LNC is the way it reduces NOX through an NH3-selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which NOX adsorbed in the lean mixture condition is converted to NH3 in the rich mixture condition and reduced in the following lean mixture condition. Thus, the new system allows more efficient reduction of NOX than its conventional counterparts. However, an appropriate switching control between lean and rich mixture conditions along with compensation for catalyst deterioration was necessary.
Technical Paper

Study on Ignition Timing Control for Diesel Engines Using In-Cylinder Pressure Sensor

As technologies for simultaneously maintaining the current high thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reducing particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) emissions, many new combustion concepts have been proposed, including premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) and low-temperature combustion[1]. However, it is well known that since such new combustion techniques precisely control combustion temperatures and local air-fuel ratios by varying the amount of air, the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio and the fuel injection timing, they have the issues of being less stable than conventional combustion techniques and of performance that is subject to variance in the fuel and driving conditions. This study concerns a system that addresses these issues by detecting the ignition timing with in-cylinder pressure sensors and by controlling the fuel injection timing and the amount of EGR for optimum combustion onboard.
Technical Paper

Study on Homogeneous Lean Charge Spark Ignition Combustion

In practical lean burn engines used to date, the use of a stratified air-fuel configuration, with a comparatively rich mixture in the vicinity of the spark plugs, has resulted in the stable combustion of an overall lean mixture. However, because a comparatively rich mixture is burned during the first half of combustion, NOx emissions are not reduced sufficiently. This research focused on a form of lean burn with homogeneous premixture that would be able to balance low NOx emissions with combustion controllability. It is widely known that homogeneous lean premixed gas has poor flame propagation characteristics. To determine the dominant cause of this, this study investigated the combustion properties of a single-cylinder engine while changing the compression ratio and intake temperature. As a result, the primary cause of combustion fluctuation, the abnormal cycle has a low TDC temperature compared to that of other cycles.