Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

Verification of Influences of Biodiesel Fuel on Automotive Fuel-line Rubber and Plastic Materials

At present, biodiesel fuels using natural-origin materials are expanding in share, and there are many different kinds. Biodiesel fuel generates organic acid when it deteriorates, so care is needed when evaluating the influence of the fuel on automotive fuel-line materials. A model biodiesel fuel was designed taking into account deterioration of the fuel and mixing of impurities into it. Durability of automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials were evaluated by using the model fuel. From the evaluation results, it was found that fluoroelastomer (hereafter referred to as FKM) and polyacetal resin (hereafter referred to as POM) deteriorate depending on specific fuel properties and deterioration state. In this paper, we report evaluating results of biodiesel fuels on the automotive fuel-line rubber and plastic materials, and the importance of biodiesel fuel property management.
Technical Paper

Validation of Turbulent Combustion and Knocking Simulation in Spark-Ignition Engines Using Reduced Chemical Kinetics

Downsizing or higher compression ratio of SI engines is an appropriate way to achieve considerable improvements of part load fuel efficiency. As the compression ratio directly impacts the engine cycle thermal efficiency, it is important to increase the compression ratio in order to reduce the specific fuel consumption. However, when operating a highly boosted / downsized SI engine at full load, the actual combustion process deviates strongly from the ideal Otto cycle due to the increased effective loads requiring ignition timing delay to suppress abnormal combustion phenomena such as engine knocking. This means that for an optimal design of an SI engine between balances must be found between part load and full load operation. If the knocking characteristic can be accurately predicted beforehand when designing the combustion chamber, a reduction of design time and /or an increase in development efficiency would be possible.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.
Technical Paper

The Validity of EPS Control System Development using HILS

In recent years, the increased use of electric power steering in vehicles has increased the importance of issues such as making systems more compact and lightweight, and dealing with increased development man-hours. To increase development efficiency, the use of a “Hardware in the loop simulator” (HILS) is being tested to shift from the previous development method that relied on a driver's subjective evaluation in an actual vehicle test to bench-test development. Using HILS enables tasks such as specification studies, performance forecasts, issue identification and countermeasure proposals to be performed at an early stage of development even when there is no prototype vehicle. This report describes a case study of using HILS to solve the issues of reducing the load by adjusting the geometric specifications around the kingpin and eliminating the tradeoff by adding a new EPS control algorithm in order to make the electric power steering (EPS) more compact and lightweight.
Technical Paper

The Development of a High Fuel Economy and High Performance Four-Valve Lean Burn Engine

The reduction of fuel consumption is of great importance to automobile manufacturers. As a prospective means to achieve fuel economy, lean burn is being investigated at various research organizations and automobile manufacturers and a number of studies on lean-burn technology have been reported to this date. This paper describes the development of a four-valve lean-burn engine; especially the improvement of the combustion, the development of an engine management system, and the achievement of vehicle test results. Major themes discussed in this paper are (1) the improvement of brake-specific fuel consumption under partial load conditions and the achievement of high output power by adopting an optimized swirl ratio and a variable-swirl system with a specially designed variable valve timing and lift mechanism, (2) the development of an air-fuel ratio control system, (3) the improvement of fuel economy as a vehicle and (4) an approach to satisfy the NOx emission standard.
Technical Paper

Study on Variable Valve Timing System Using Electromagnetic Mechanism

In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to a non-throttling technology that is expected to contribute to a reduction in fuel consumption. This paper describes a study on the technology behind the electromagnetic variable valve timing mechanism (electromagnetic valve mechanism). The electromagnetic valve mechanism ensures highly efficient and stable valve opening/closing control. The detailed information and findings will be described in the main body. In addition, the advantages of the mechanism's application to a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine (HCCI engine) will also be described.
Technical Paper

Study on Maximizing Exergy in Automotive Engines

The use of waste heat for automobile engine that applied Rankine cycle from the viewpoint of exergy (available energy) was researched. In order to recover heat to high quality energy, a heat-management engine whose exhaust port was replaced with an innovative evaporation device was developed. With this engine, high temperature and high pressure steam (400 degree C, 8MPa) could be generated from a large amount of the exhaust loss. In addition, high temperature water (189 degree C) was obtained from cooling loss. Consequently, the system that recovered more exergy from waste heat was established. To verify the system, the Rankine cycle system was installed in a hybrid vehicle and the automatic control system to change steam temperature and pressure according to the load variation was constructed. As the result of vehicle testing, thermal efficiency was increased from 28.9% to 32.7% (by 13.2% increase) at 100km/h constant vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Study on Impulse Charger for Enhancement of Volumetric Efficiency of SI Engine

Downsizing the engine would be an effective means of improving fuel economy and reducing CO2 emissions. In this case, low-speed torque generation can be enhanced through the use of impulse charging technology, a subject attracting the attention of many researchers. This paper reports the basic characteristics of impulse charging identified through research using a single-cylinder test engine, aiming for application of the technology to spark ignition (SI) engines. To ensure the maximum level of volumetric efficiency under impulse charging conditions, two requirements are controlling the timing of switching from a negative to a positive pressure wave while turning its direction at the intake chamber, and maximizing the positive pressure wave.
Technical Paper

Study on HCCI-SI Combustion Using Fuels Ethanol Containing

Bio-ethanol is one of the candidates for automotive alternative fuels. For reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, it is important to investigate its optimum combustion procedure. This study has explored effect of ethanol fuels on HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using dual fuel injection (DFI). Steady and transient characteristics of the HCCI-SI hybrid combustion were evaluated using a single cylinder engine and a four-cylinder engine equipped with two port injectors and a direct injector. The experimental results indicated that DFI has the potential for optimizing ignition timing of HCCI combustion and for suppressing knock in SI combustion under fixed compression ratio. The HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using DFI achieved increasing efficiency compared to conventional SI combustion.
Technical Paper

Study on Engine Management System Using In-cylinder Pressure Sensor Integrated with Spark Plug

There has been strong public demand for reduced hazardous exhaust gas emissions and improved fuel economy for automobile engines. In recent years, a number of innovative solutions that lead to a reduction in fuel consumption rate have been developed, including in-cylinder direct injection and lean burn combustion technologies, as well as an engine utilizing a large volume of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Furthermore, a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is under development for actual application. However, one of the issues common to these technologies is less stable combustion, which causes difficulty in engine management. Additionally, it is now mandatory to provide an onboard diagnosis (OBD) system. This requires manufacturers to develop a technology that allows onboard monitoring and control of the combustion state. This paper reports on an innovative combustion diagnostic method using an in-cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

Study on Contribution of Tire Driving Stiffness to Vehicle Fuel Economy

In recent years, the contribution of tires on vehicle fuel economy has been garnering attention. Up until now, rolling resistance coefficient (RRC) has been the standard way of measuring the amount of impact the tire has on fuel economy. We devised a new method for evaluating the impact of tires on fuel economy that incorporates the concept of tire “driving transmission efficiency” (hereinafter referred to as “driving stiffness”). In doing so, we have clarified the technology direction for contributing to the improvement of fuel economy while maintaining vehicle maneuverability by reducing RRC and improving tire driving stiffness.
Technical Paper

Study on Combustion Monitoring System for Formula One Engines Using Ionic Current Measurement

Formula One engines, which are the pursuit of the ultimate in performance, tend to be comparatively vulnerable to durability issues. These engines sometimes run under a state of unstable combustion as compensation for improved fuel economy. To cope with these issues, there have been strong demands in the racing field for a technology that will allow constant monitoring and prompt action to be carried out on system malfunctions and failures, as well as unstable combustion. The research program described in this paper deals with an onboard technology for monitoring combustion under all the operational conditions using ionic current measurement. The technology will possibly be applied to engine management and car-to-pit communications via telemetering. The scope of the control it offers includes; detection of misfire and hesitation, detection and management of detonation, and management of lean-burn combustion.
Technical Paper

Study of Methods to Enhance Energy Utilization Efficiency of Micro Combined Heat and Power Generation Unit-Equipped with an Extended Expansion Linkage Engine and Reduction of Waste Energy

To increase energy utilization efficiency of a micro combined heat and power generation unit, methods for simultaneously enhancing efficiencies of power generation and of heat recovery, which are normally in the trade-off relationship has been studied. To increase power generation efficiency, an extended expansion linkage engine higher in thermal efficiency than conventional engines has been adopted. The power generation efficiency was enhanced by 3.8 points to 26.3% from 22.5% of a conventional model. However, since introducing an extended expansion engine increases kinetic energy and lowers the temperature of exhaust gas from the engine, it is difficult to enhance the heat recovery. Focusing on the fact that most released heat energy is discharged through ventilation from the unit, ventilation cooling system was reexamined, and reduction of the released heat energy was considered.
Technical Paper

Study of Low-Viscosity Engine Oil on Fuel Economy and Engine Reliability

An examination was made on the effect of low-viscosity engine oil on fuel efficiency improvements and engine reliability for the purpose of improving fuel efficiency through the use of select engine oils. Fuel efficiency-improving effects were estimated by measuring friction torque using low-viscosity engine oil. The results show that reducing engine oil viscosity is effective for improving fuel efficiency. In examining engine reliability, attention was paid to the following two aspects which are concerns in practical performance that may arise when engine oil viscosity is reduced. Engine oil consumption Sliding wear at high temperatures Tests and analyses were conducted to develop indexes for engine oil properties that are strongly correlated with each of these two concerns. A strong correlation was found between engine oil consumption and the results of a thermogravimetric analysis, and between high-temperature sliding wear and high-temperature, high-shear viscosity (HTHS).
Technical Paper

Study of Knocking Damage Indexing Based on Optical Measurement

Attempts were made to measure knocking phenomenon by an optical method, which is free from influences of mechanical noises and is allowing an easy installation to an engine. Using a newly developed high durability optical probe, the light intensity of hydroxyl radical component, which is diffracted from the emitted light from combustion, was measured. The intensity of this emission component was measured at each crank angle and the maximum intensity in a cycle was identified. After that, the angular range in which the measured intensity exceeded 85% of this maximum intensity was defined as “CA85”. When a knocking was purposely induced by changing the conditions of the engine operation, there appeared the engine cycles that included CA85 less than a crank angle of 4 degrees. The frequency of occurrence of CA85 equal to or less than 4 degrees within a predetermined number of engine cycles, which can be interpreted as a knocking occurrence ratio, was denoted as “CA85-4”.
Journal Article

Study of High-Compression-Ratio Engine Combined with an Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Separation System

Bio-ethanol is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as “E10 gasoline”. In this study, a method was examined to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high-load performance in a high-compression-ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high-concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane. High-ethanol-concentration fuel was selectively used at high-load conditions to suppress knocking. In this system, a method to decrease ethanol consumption is necessary to cover the wide range of engine operation. Lower ethanol consumption could be achieved by Miller-cycle operation because decrease of the effective compression ratio suppresses knocking. However, high-load operation was limited due to the decrease in intake air volume with Miller-cycle operation.
Technical Paper

Study of Ethanol-Gasoline Onboard Separation System for Knocking Suppression

Bio-ethanol is used worldwide in fuel mixtures such as E10 gasoline. In this study, an onboard fuel system employing a pervaporation membrane was investigated to separate E10 into high-octane-number fuel (high-concentration ethanol fuel) and low-octane-number fuel (low-concentration ethanol fuel). The optimal operation conditions and size of the membrane unit for the separation system were determined in consideration of the separation rate and vehicle installation. This system can supply separated ethanol with sufficient speed and quantity to improve engine performance under practical driving conditions. In addition, the study was conducted to confirm that separated fuels have properties sufficient for use in automobiles. This separation rate enabled 5-cycle-mode driving without temporary shortage of permeated fuel.
Technical Paper

Study of CNG Fueled Two-Wheeled Vehicle with Electronically Controlled Gas Injection System

Owing to its combustion characteristics and chemical composition, natural gas features cleaner emissions and lower CO2 compared to gasoline under equal thermal efficiency. Natural gas can be a promising alternative energy source to respond to crude oil exhaustion and global warming issues. Focusing on the utility of natural gas, a feasibility study on CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -fueled two-wheeled vehicles has been conducted. A proto-type two-wheeled vehicle was made based on a 125 cm3 class gasoline-fueled scooter. To adapt the engine to the use of CNG fuel, an electronically controlled gas injection system was applied to the fuel supply system. To provide abrasion resistance of engine valves and valve seats, the specific matter of gas-fuel was improved. Furthermore, a lubricant circulation passage was added to maintain the temperature of the pressure reducing valve.
Technical Paper

Spark Plug Voltage Analysis for Monitoring Combustion in an Internal Combustion Engine

The idea to monitor the combustion in an internal combustion engine and using the obtained data to control combustion in the engine has been around for some time now. There are two well-known methods, although in the capacity of lab experiments, which had been developed under this principle. One features the analysis of combustion pressure and the other features the analysis of ionic currents detected in the combustion gas. Although highly precise analysis can be achieved by the former, there are problems in the installation of sensors for detecting combustion pressure, also in the durability and cost of such sensors. As for the latter, there are also problems in installing sensors for detecting the ionic currents and the reliability of obtained data from such sensors is still questionable.
Journal Article

Simulation of Fuel Economy Effectiveness of Exhaust Heat Recovery System Using Thermoelectric Generator in a Series Hybrid

Simulation was employed to estimate the fuel economy enhancement from the application of an exhaust heat recovery system using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a series hybrid. The properties of the thermoelectric elements were obtained by self-assessment and set as the conditions for estimating the fuel economy. It was concluded that applying exhaust system insulation and forming the appropriate combination of elements with differing temperature properties inside the TEG could yield an enhancement of about 3% in fuel economy. An actual vehicle was also used to verify the calculation elements in the fuel economy simulation, and their reliability was confirmed.