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Technical Paper

Study on Main Engine Start for More Electric Architecture Aircraft

This paper studies the technical characteristics of a start system for aircraft engines. By using the latest improvements in power electronics and digital controls this system eliminates the conventional Air Turbine Starter (ATS) or DC starter by driving the generator installed on the engine as a motor to achieve the start. The presented start system enables a completely new architecture in today's modern and efficient aircraft using the More Electric Architecture (MEA), since bleed air is not required to start the main engines. The MEA increases the overall efficiency of the aircraft by electrically driving the Environmental Control System (ECS) and other major systems such as anti-ice, landing gear, hydraulics etc. This start system eliminates the ATS and its equipment (bleed valve, clutch) for the larger engines or the DC Starter, while providing a start where the engine is accelerated up to 80% idle speed vs. 50-60% provided by the previous Starter.
Technical Paper

SSPC Technologies for Aircraft High Voltage DC Power Distribution Applications

There is a growing need for high voltage direct current (HVDC) power distribution systems in aircraft which provide low-loss distribution with low weight. Challenges associated with HVDC distribution systems include improving reliability and reducing the size and weight of key components such as electric load control units (ELCUs), or remote power controllers (RPCs) for load control and feeder protection, and primary bus switching contactors. The traditional electromechanical current interrupting devices suffer from poor reliability due to arcs generated during repeated closing and opening operations, and are generally slow in isolating a fault with potentially high let-through energy, which directly impacts system safety.
Technical Paper

Risk Analysis of Blockchain Application for Aerospace Records Management

Blockchain as a technology has been successfully deployed in the financial industry. As the technology continues to mature, there are opportunities to use this to solve operational challenges in Aerospace. One of the common use cases is replacing paper records as a proof of compliance with a blockchain enabled distributed ledger. Commonly available open source blockchain frameworks have security ingrained in the components. However, replacing paper records with a blockchain based distributed ledger will require investigation of potential risks involved in the end to end usage of this technology for records management. The objective of this paper is to elucidate potential risks in an aviation record management workflow environment enabled by blockchain and suggest requirements to mitigate the risks.
Technical Paper

Refinements to Mechanical Health Monitoring Algorithms

This paper discusses recent improvements made by Honeywell's Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM) Center of Excellence (COE) to Mechanical Health Management (MHM) algorithms. The Honeywell approach fuses Condition Indicators (CIs) from vibration monitoring and oil debris monitoring. This paper focuses on using MHM algorithms for monitoring gas turbine engines. First an overview is given that explains the general MHM approach, and then specific examples of how the algorithms are being refined are presented. One of the improvements discussed involves how to detect a fault earlier in the fault progression, while continuing to avoid false alarms. The second improvement discussed is how to make end of life thresholds more robust: rather than relying solely on the cumulative mass of oil debris, the end of life indication is supplemented with indicators that consider the rate of debris generation.
Technical Paper

Reduced Order Tracking 3-ph Phase-Locked Loops in Aerospace Applications

Modeling and analysis of a reduced order tracking 3-phase Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) based on a combined control principle (error + disturbance) to improve PLL locking performance is presented in this work. The principle is in synthesizing a feedforward control that is added to a Stationary/Floating Frame Transformation PLL or Synchronous (Delta Q) Frame Transformation PLL. The feedforward comprises a frequency-to-voltage converter based on a phase/frequency estimation using an algebraic summation while implementing an inverse feedforward control principle relative to the part of the feedback loop seen after the summing junction. The reduced order tracking PLL is shown to desensitize the system relative to the conventional part PI controller tuning parameters and is operated to lock on either linear or nonlinear load current waveform and for arbitrary frequency/phase profile while maintaining stability by minimizing system dynamics.
Journal Article

Powder Reuse and Its Effects on Laser Based Powder Fusion Additive Manufactured Alloy 718

Laser Based Powder Bed Fusion, a specific application of additive manufacturing, has shown promise to replace traditionally fabricated components, including castings and wrought products (and multiple-piece assemblies thereof). In this process, powder is applied, layer by layer, to a build plate, and each layer is fused by a laser to the layers below. Depending on the component, it appears that only 3-5% of the powder charged into the powder bed fusion machine is fused. Honeywell’s initial part qualification efforts have prohibited the reuse of powder. Any unfused powder that exits the dispenser (i.e., surrounds the build or is captured in the overflow) is considered used. In order for the process to be broadly applicable in an economical manner, a methodology should be developed to render the balance of the powder (up to 97% of the initial charge weight) as re-usable.
Journal Article

Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook

The purpose of the Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook is to provide user information and guidelines for testing Integrated Circuits (IC) and electronic systems at the Irradiation of Chips and Electronics (ICE) Houses at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Microelectronic technology is constantly advancing to higher density, faster devices and lower voltages. These factors may increase device susceptibility to radiation effects. The high-energy neutron source at LANSCE/LANL provides the capability for accelerated neutron testing of semiconductor devices and electronic systems and to simulate effects in various neutron environments.
Technical Paper

Lightning Requirements: Where They Come From and How to Analyze Their Impact

Many avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers use DO-160 [Ref. 1] Section 22 to test their equipment for indirect effects of lightning without understanding why they are testing to specific values. Many aircraft manufacturers struggle with determining the level of indirect lightning that will be acceptable for their vehicle and what level of requirements they need to pass down to the avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers. Organizations like SAE and RTCA, Inc. work to collect data on lightning and spend countless hours assimilating the information and developing documents to help engineers use the information. They struggle with knowing what data is pertinent and how it will be received and used by the engineering community.
Technical Paper

Interfacing Power Line Communications to Airborne Vehicles: A Technical Review

This paper reviews the characteristics of a power line network as data communication medium and studies the challenges encountered when communicating over power wiring. This technology review has been done as part of feasibility study for using aircraft power-lines for data communication. Power-Line Communication is a term which describes the use of existing electrical lines to provide the medium for a high speed communications network. Power Line Communications is achieved by superimposing the voice or data signals onto the line carrier signal using an appropriate communication technology. Power Line Communications represent a potential simplicity for communications among different devices, because it does not need additional wires for connecting devices network together. Power line cables have been used as a communication medium for many years. However, because power line cables are not designed for communication, they pose major challenges for a modem designer.
Journal Article

High Altitude Ice Crystal Detection with Aircraft X-band Weather Radar

During participation on EU FP7 HAIC project, Honeywell has developed methodology to detect High Altitude Ice Crystals with the Honeywell IntuVue® RDR-4000 X-band Weather Radar. The algorithm utilizes 3D weather buffer of RDR-4000 weather radar and is based on machine learning. The modified RDR-4000 Weather Radar was successfully flight tested during 2016 HAIC Validation Campaign; the technology was granted Technology Readiness Level 6 by HAIC consortium. After the end of HAIC project, the method was also evaluated with respect to newly set preliminary industry standard performance requirements1. This paper discuses technology design rationale, high level technology architecture, technology performance, and challenges associated with performance evaluation.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchanger Fouling Detection in Aircraft Environmental Control Systems

The operating environment of aircraft causes accumulation and build-up of contamination on both the narrowest passages of the ECS (Environmental Control System) i.e: the heat exchangers. Accumulated contamination may lead to reduction of performance over time, and in some case to failures causing AOG (Aircraft on Ground), customer dissatisfaction and elevated repair costs. Airframers/airlines eschew fixed maintenance cleaning intervals because of the high cost of removing and cleaning these devices preferring instead to rely on on-condition maintenance. In addition, on-wing cleaning is t impractical because of installation constrains. Hence, it is desirable to have a contamination monitoring that could alert the maintenance crew in advance to prepare and minimize disruption when contamination levels exceed acceptable thresholds. Two methods are proposed to achieve this task, The effectiveness of these methods are demonstrated using analytical and computational tools.
Journal Article

Health Ready Components-Unlocking the Potential of IVHM

Health Ready Components are essential to unlocking the potential of Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) as it relates to real-time diagnosis and prognosis in order to achieve lower maintenance costs, greater asset availability, reliability and safety. IVHM results in reduced maintenance costs by providing more accurate fault isolation and repair guidance. IVHM results in greater asset availability, reliability and safety by recommending preventative maintenance and by identifying anomalous behavior indicative of degraded functionality prior to detection of the fault by other detection mechanisms. The cost, complexity and effectiveness of the IVHM system design, deployment and support depend, to a great extent, on the degree to which components and subsystems provide the run-time data needed by IVHM and the design time semantic data to allow IVHM to interpret those messages.
Journal Article

HTF7000 Engine Design, Development and Uses

Honeywell has developed a unique turbofan engine for application to the super mid-size business aviation market, the HTF7000. This paper will describe the design of this engine including aeromechanical design of its components. The unique design features of this engine will be described along with the technology growth path to keep the engine current. This paper will also describe several features which have been developed for this engine in response to new regulatory requirements. Some aspects of the engine to aircraft integration will also be described.
Technical Paper

Electric Starting of Large Aircraft Engines

This paper examines why large aircraft engines are started the way they are today, and why that may all change in the not too distant future. Electric starting of aircraft engines and Auxiliary Power Units (APU) has been limited to 28 VDC battery systems, with starting power typically under 10 kW. Above this power level the very high battery currents, and resulting voltage drops, make the approach less and less practical. Large engines for commercial transports may require more than 100 kW to start so low voltage battery starting will not be an option.
Technical Paper

Development of a Passive Gas Trap for Internal Thermal Control System

A passive gas removal device, i.e. gas trap is used in the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) of the International Space Station (ISS) to remove non-condensable gases to prevent the cavitation or air locking of the pump and malfunction of the pressure and flow sensors. Since the non-condensable gases are always ingested into the ITCS during the routine maintenance and/or replacement of components in the ITCS, it is necessary to have an efficient and reliable gas trap in the liquid coolant loop of the ITCS. To increase tolerance to particulate and microbial growth fouling, extend the operational life, reduce the cost and on-orbit maintenance, and decrease crew workload, an alternative gas trap composed of only one type of membrane is developed. This paper describes the efforts involved in this development, which include the design concept of the alternative gas trap, performance modeling, and the preliminary performance test of the alternative gas trap in the relevant environment.
Technical Paper

Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a “real-world” example related to designing a landing gear system.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Hydrophilic-Coated Evaporator System for Heat Rejection in Space

An evaporative heat exchanger system, suitable for rejecting heat in a space environment, has been developed. The system is designed to use water as the evaporant, although other fluids are possible. The major components of the system include an evaporative heat exchanger, water spray nozzles, a back-pressure regulator, a pressurized water supply tank, and appropriate controls. The heat exchanger is a high-performance aircraft-type plate-fin design, with a proprietary hydrophilic coating applied to the evaporant-side flow passages. The hydrophilic coating promotes good contact between the evaporating water and the hot heat transfer surfaces.
Technical Paper

Creating a System Architecture for a Vehicle Condition-Based Maintenance System

An emerging emphasis for the design and development of vehicle condition-based maintenance (CBM) systems amplifies its use for conducting vehicle maintenance based on evidence of need. This paper presents a systems engineering approach to creating an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) architecture which places emphasis on the system's ultimate use to meet the operational needs of the vehicle and fleet maintainer, to collect data, conduct analysis, and support the decision-making processes for the sustainment and operations of the vehicle and assets being monitored. The demand for a CBM system generally assumes that the asset being monitored is complex or that the operational use of the system demands complexity, timely response or that system failure has catastrophic results. Ground vehicles are such complex systems, which are the emphasis of this paper. Developing the system architecture of such complex systems demands a systematic approach.
Technical Paper

Control of Cabin and Cargo Heaters in Aerospace Applications

The comparison between a proposed aircraft cabin and cargo heater control system and conventional control schemes is presented together with the key performance figures of the systems. An active AC/DC converter comprising a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is proposed to control the energy supplied by the AC Variable Frequency (VF) source to the heater loads instead of controlling the energy by means of a Pulse-Width Modulated (PWM) AC power flow. The proposed system eliminates problems associated with interharmonics generated in the AC VF PWM case - a material advantage. It draws a close to sinusoidal current from the VF source, features a near unity power factor, and operates within the VF range due to the use of PLL.
Technical Paper

An Algebraic-Summation-Based 3-ph Phase-Locked Loop in Aerospace Applications

This work deals with modeling and analysis of a 3-phase Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) based on an algebraic-summation scheme rather than the Stationary/Floating frame transformation PLL or synchronous (Delta Q) frame transformation PLL, and operated to lock on either linear or nonlinear load current waveform, and in the presence of a loss of phase or unbalanced 3-phase load. The PLL scheme is described and performance results are presented, demonstrating its ability to estimate phase and frequency of the input signal in aerospace applications in which a Unity Vector production and a Frequency-to-Voltage conversion is performed.