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Technical Paper

SSPC Technologies for Aircraft High Voltage DC Power Distribution Applications

There is a growing need for high voltage direct current (HVDC) power distribution systems in aircraft which provide low-loss distribution with low weight. Challenges associated with HVDC distribution systems include improving reliability and reducing the size and weight of key components such as electric load control units (ELCUs), or remote power controllers (RPCs) for load control and feeder protection, and primary bus switching contactors. The traditional electromechanical current interrupting devices suffer from poor reliability due to arcs generated during repeated closing and opening operations, and are generally slow in isolating a fault with potentially high let-through energy, which directly impacts system safety.
Journal Article

Powder Reuse and Its Effects on Laser Based Powder Fusion Additive Manufactured Alloy 718

Laser Based Powder Bed Fusion, a specific application of additive manufacturing, has shown promise to replace traditionally fabricated components, including castings and wrought products (and multiple-piece assemblies thereof). In this process, powder is applied, layer by layer, to a build plate, and each layer is fused by a laser to the layers below. Depending on the component, it appears that only 3-5% of the powder charged into the powder bed fusion machine is fused. Honeywell’s initial part qualification efforts have prohibited the reuse of powder. Any unfused powder that exits the dispenser (i.e., surrounds the build or is captured in the overflow) is considered used. In order for the process to be broadly applicable in an economical manner, a methodology should be developed to render the balance of the powder (up to 97% of the initial charge weight) as re-usable.
Technical Paper

Lightning Requirements: Where They Come From and How to Analyze Their Impact

Many avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers use DO-160 [Ref. 1] Section 22 to test their equipment for indirect effects of lightning without understanding why they are testing to specific values. Many aircraft manufacturers struggle with determining the level of indirect lightning that will be acceptable for their vehicle and what level of requirements they need to pass down to the avionics and aircraft equipment manufacturers. Organizations like SAE and RTCA, Inc. work to collect data on lightning and spend countless hours assimilating the information and developing documents to help engineers use the information. They struggle with knowing what data is pertinent and how it will be received and used by the engineering community.
Technical Paper

Interfacing Power Line Communications to Airborne Vehicles: A Technical Review

This paper reviews the characteristics of a power line network as data communication medium and studies the challenges encountered when communicating over power wiring. This technology review has been done as part of feasibility study for using aircraft power-lines for data communication. Power-Line Communication is a term which describes the use of existing electrical lines to provide the medium for a high speed communications network. Power Line Communications is achieved by superimposing the voice or data signals onto the line carrier signal using an appropriate communication technology. Power Line Communications represent a potential simplicity for communications among different devices, because it does not need additional wires for connecting devices network together. Power line cables have been used as a communication medium for many years. However, because power line cables are not designed for communication, they pose major challenges for a modem designer.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchanger Fouling Detection in Aircraft Environmental Control Systems

The operating environment of aircraft causes accumulation and build-up of contamination on both the narrowest passages of the ECS (Environmental Control System) i.e: the heat exchangers. Accumulated contamination may lead to reduction of performance over time, and in some case to failures causing AOG (Aircraft on Ground), customer dissatisfaction and elevated repair costs. Airframers/airlines eschew fixed maintenance cleaning intervals because of the high cost of removing and cleaning these devices preferring instead to rely on on-condition maintenance. In addition, on-wing cleaning is t impractical because of installation constrains. Hence, it is desirable to have a contamination monitoring that could alert the maintenance crew in advance to prepare and minimize disruption when contamination levels exceed acceptable thresholds. Two methods are proposed to achieve this task, The effectiveness of these methods are demonstrated using analytical and computational tools.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Hydrophilic-Coated Evaporator System for Heat Rejection in Space

An evaporative heat exchanger system, suitable for rejecting heat in a space environment, has been developed. The system is designed to use water as the evaporant, although other fluids are possible. The major components of the system include an evaporative heat exchanger, water spray nozzles, a back-pressure regulator, a pressurized water supply tank, and appropriate controls. The heat exchanger is a high-performance aircraft-type plate-fin design, with a proprietary hydrophilic coating applied to the evaporant-side flow passages. The hydrophilic coating promotes good contact between the evaporating water and the hot heat transfer surfaces.
Technical Paper

Creating a System Architecture for a Vehicle Condition-Based Maintenance System

An emerging emphasis for the design and development of vehicle condition-based maintenance (CBM) systems amplifies its use for conducting vehicle maintenance based on evidence of need. This paper presents a systems engineering approach to creating an integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) architecture which places emphasis on the system's ultimate use to meet the operational needs of the vehicle and fleet maintainer, to collect data, conduct analysis, and support the decision-making processes for the sustainment and operations of the vehicle and assets being monitored. The demand for a CBM system generally assumes that the asset being monitored is complex or that the operational use of the system demands complexity, timely response or that system failure has catastrophic results. Ground vehicles are such complex systems, which are the emphasis of this paper. Developing the system architecture of such complex systems demands a systematic approach.
Technical Paper

Advances in Active Power Converter Topologies for Power Quality Solution for More Electric Aircraft

This paper focuses on advances in active power converter topologies for power quality solutions for More Electric Aircraft (MEA). Advancements in power electronics encompass many technologies including power semiconductors, microprocessors or digital signal processors (DSPs), and component packaging. Hence, active power electronic solutions are becoming more attractive from the perspective of weight, volume, performance and cost. A particular contribution that leads to these advancements is the feasibility of implementing the robust control topologies using faster processors. In this paper various active topologies are reviewed, but a particular emphasis is given to a novel control topology for an active filtering technique where an overall reduction of current harmonics of an aircraft power distribution system can be achieved at the system level rather than at the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) level.
Technical Paper

Advanced Heat Exchanger Technology for Aerospace Applications

Thermal management requirements for aerospace applications continue to grow while weight and volume allotments remain constant or shrink. Compact, high performance and lightweight heat transfer equipment is needed to meet these high heat flux removal requirements. Several innovative heat transfer enhancement techniques are being considered for development of thermal management components that will meet these challenging demands. Honeywell, under an AFRL funded program, is developing two new heat exchanger technologies; microchannel and advanced heat transfer surfaces to improve thermal management systems for a fuel-to-air heat exchanger. Heat transfer systems in military aircraft are increasingly using fuel as a heat sink. Heat transport loops containing several fuel-to-liquid heat exchangers are used to cool electronics, engine oil, hydraulic oil, and elements of the thermal management system.