Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 17 of 17
Technical Paper

Utilization Life of Electronic Systems - Aging Avionics Usable Life and Wear-Out Issues

2002-11-05
2002-01-3013
How a system ages is central to the assessment of the effective utilization life of the system. Utilization life represents more than estimating the remaining life in an aged system, it is determining how to optimally plan a system's future management and future use to minimize the life cycle cost incurred. The consideration of utilization life of a system includes the physics of aging, damage accumulation techniques, mitigation of aging, qualified use of aged parts for spare replenishment, prognostics, and quantification of cost avoidance. Any approach to evaluating utilization life depends on a making an effective evaluation of the reliability, durability and safety of the system. Traditional Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) metrics that assume a constant failure rate are likely to be less useful in the evaluation and practical implementation of utilization life concepts than Failure Free Operating Period (FFOP).
Technical Paper

Usage of MTBF for Exposure Times of Undetected Faults in Safety Assessments

2007-09-17
2007-01-3831
Many of the certification regulations in 14 CFR Part 25 are by design, broad and as such, can be subject to large differences in the interpretation of what constitutes adequate compliance. Advisory Circulars (AC's) were developed for many of the regulations to assist industry, as well as certification personnel, with what is considered an acceptable, but not the only means, of compliance. However, there are many regulations where no advisory material is available. In these cases, the “acceptable means” of compliance can vary to a greater degree among the various aircraft certification offices. This difficulty is aggravated as new applicants and regulatory personnel enter the certification field. Recent discussions and interpretations on the usage of an avionic unit's mean time between failure or MTBF for its detectable faults as the basic repair rate for undetected or latent faults, is a subject area where no significant advisory material exists.
Technical Paper

The Quest for Oil-Free Gas Turbine Engines

2006-11-07
2006-01-3055
Since the 1960s, aerospace research and development (R&D) has been on a quest to eliminate oil lubrication systems from gas turbine engines. Beginning with small solar power dynamic “engines” for space applications, U.S. Government and industry have invested millions of dollars to mature this technology for incorporation into modern aircraft propulsion engines. This paper traces the evolution of oil-free rotor support systems that have actually been tested in advanced demonstrators, and the technology that enables this revolutionary engine configuration. However, this technology has yet to be fielded in aerospace products. The key factors of 45 years of Government and industry R&D and a vision to mature oil-free gas turbine engines are presented herein.
Technical Paper

Plastic Ball-Grid-Arrays (PBGA): Are they ready for environmentally harsh Aerospace applications?

2002-11-05
2002-01-3011
Although the plastic ball-grid-array (PBGA) is accepted in the commercial and industrial community as a viable packaging technology, their acceptance in an environmentally harsh aerospace application has been limited. The limitation is due to a perceived reliability and durability risk most aerospace industries are unwilling to accept. However, with the abundant availability of PBGA packages, and a limited source of comparable substitutes, the aerospace industry is faced with a dilemma. The aerospace industry does not drive the semiconductor market, since the volumes for semiconductor devices are low in comparison with other high-volume semiconductor consumer industry. Therefore, the aerospace industry is faced with validating the viability of PBGA packaging technology for harsh environmental aerospace applications. This paper will discuss a formal method for validating PBGA packaging technology for environmentally harsh aerospace applications.
Technical Paper

Physiological Limits of Underpressure and Overpressure for Mechanical Counter Pressure Suits

2003-07-07
2003-01-2444
The first concept and early experiments of a mechanical counter pressure (MCP) spacesuit were published by Webb in the late 1960's. MCP provides an alternative approach to the conventional full pressure suit that bears some significant advantages, such as increased mobility, dexterity, and tactility. The presented ongoing research provides a thorough investigation of the physiological effect of mechanical counter pressure applied onto the human skin. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative and positive ambient pressure on the lower body as a preliminary study for a lower body garment. The data indicates that the positive pressure was less tolerable than negative pressure. Lower body negative and positive pressure cause various responses in skin blood flow due to not only blood shifts but also direct exposure to pressure differentials.
Technical Paper

Physiological Effects of Underpressure and Overpressure in a Study of Mechanical Counter Pressure Suits

2002-07-15
2002-01-2317
The first concept and early experiments of a Mechanical Counter Pressure (MCP) spacesuit were published by Webb in the late 1960's. MCP provides an alternative approach to the conventional full pressure suit that bears some significant advantages, such as increased mobility, dexterity, and tactility. The presented ongoing research provides a thorough investigation of the physiological effect of mechanical counter pressure applied onto the human skin. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with negative and positive ambient pressure on a bare arm, and with a MCP glove and sleeve. The data indicates that the MCP glove and sleeve effectively counteracted the adverse effects of negative environmental pressure.
Technical Paper

Physiological Effects of A Mechanical Counter Pressure Glove

2001-07-09
2001-01-2165
The first concept and early experiments of a Mechanical Counter Pressure (MCP) spacesuit were published by Webb in the late 1960’s. MCP provides an alternative approach to the conventional full pressure suit that bears some potential advantages, such as increased mobility, dexterity, and tactility. The presented ongoing research provides a thorough investigation of the physiological effect of mechanical counter pressure applied onto the human skin. Preliminary results are presented from glovebox testing with an existing MCP glove. The data indicates that properly applied mechanical counter pressure greatly reduces the effect of low-pressure exposure, which makes MCP a viable technology for spacesuit gloves.
Journal Article

Lead-Unity-Lag Electric Power Generation System

2012-10-22
2012-01-2181
This paper introduces a novel method for an electric power generation system (EPGS) employing a lead-unity-lag (LUL) permanent-magnet (PM) generator operation for a direct current (DC) power distribution bus. In addition, background information of the prior art for a leading power factor EPGS is discussed. The concept of the new approach is defined and a comparative analysis between the new and old state-of-the-art solutions are documented. The performance features and technical details of the system parameters with respect to power generation system requirements are presented and discussed. Analysis and testing results are included. Finally, the advantages of this system, a conclusion, and recommendations for future work are provided. Test results from a system having elements of this novel approach are included. With this method for an LUL EPGS, the capability of the high-performance electric power generation systems is improved substantially.
Technical Paper

Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft - SAE ARP 4103

2015-09-15
2015-01-2535
The past twenty years have seen tremendous changes in the Avionics display and flight deck lighting due to the application of solid-state LED (light emitting diode) light sources and LCDs (liquid crystal displays). These advances significantly benefit the customer and pilot users when integrated correctly. This paper discusses recommended practices and guidance given in SAE ARP 4103 for modern Avionics flight deck lighting systems to satisfy the end user and obtain certification. SAE ARP 4103 Flight Deck Lighting for Commercial Transport Aircraft has recently been revised to keep up with the Avionics state-of-the-art and add clarification where needed. ARP 4103 contains recommended Avionics flight deck lighting design and performance criteria to ensure prompt and accurate readability and visibility, color identification and discrimination of needed information under all expected ambient lighting and electrical power conditions. For additional details, see the actual ARP 4103.
Journal Article

Electric Drives for Electric Green Taxiing Systems

2016-09-20
2016-01-2013
This paper addresses the implementation of electric taxiing without the use of main engines by using electric propulsion of the landing gears. Substantial progress in this area has been achieved by Honeywell Aerospace and Safran in a joint initiative for developing an electric green taxiing system (eTaxi). Considerable analysis, design, fabrication, and testing have already been completed, which culminated in a demonstration at the Paris Air Show (PAS) in 2013. The eTaxi system has been installed on an A320 airplane that uses the auxiliary power unit (APU) to generate electric power to provide propulsion to two wheels of the main landing gear. The main advantages of such a system are reduction of fuel consumption and audio noise, reduction of CO2 , carbon and nitrous emissions, reduced engine foreign object damage (FOD) exposure and fast-turn time savings by elimination of the ground tractor for pushback operation.
Technical Paper

Determining Optimum Redesign Plans for Avionics Based on Electronic Part Obsolescence Forecasts

2002-11-05
2002-01-3012
Many electronic parts have life cycles that are shorter than the life cycle of the product they are in. Life cycle mismatches caused by the obsolescence of electronic parts can result in significantly sustainment costs for long life systems. In particular, avionics often encounters part obsolescence problems before being fielded and nearly always experience part obsolescence problems during their field life. This paper presents a methodology for determining the optimum design refresh (redesign) schedule for long field life electronic systems based on forecasted electronic part obsolescence and a mix of obsolescence mitigation approaches ranging from lifetime buys to part substitution.
Video

Design and Flight Test of a Primary Flight Display Combined Vision System

2012-03-19
A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign.
Journal Article

Design and Flight Test of a Primary Flight Display Combined Vision System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2525
A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign.
Journal Article

Composite AC-to-DC Power Converters for More Electric Architectures

2014-09-16
2014-01-2207
This paper presents a novel method and system for an electric power alternating-current (AC)-to-direct-current (DC) converter employing composite technology. The term composite entails utilization of more than one type of conversion operating in parallel. In addition, background information for the prior art, based on conventional autotransformer rectifier units (ATRUs), and active converters are discussed. The major requirements of AC-to-DC converters from both functional and protection perspectives are provided. The concept of the new approach is defined. Comparative analysis between the new and old methods is documented. The performance features and technical details of the system parameters with respect to AC-to-DC converter system requirements are presented and discussed. Analysis, simulation results, and test data are included. Finally, the advantages of this technology, which nearly doubles power density compared to the state-of-the-art, are summarized and a conclusion included.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Carbon Dioxide Removal for the International Space Station (ISS)

2001-07-09
2001-01-2415
Carbon dioxide removal is an essential part of any environmental control and life support system of an enclosed atmosphere. The current state of key technology is the existing International Space Station (ISS) Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) used to selectively remove carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. The CDRA is part of the ISS air revitalization system. This paper will present approaches to recover the carbon dioxide for down stream processing. A discussion of a closed-loop CDRA system that will selectively remove carbon dioxide from the cabin air supply and this product will be routed to a carbon dioxide reduction system, where the oxygen will be recovered. Using a CDRA system modified for closed loop operation, a case by case illustration of the sequential operation will be presented.
Technical Paper

Cascaded Distillation Technology for Water Processing in Space

2003-07-07
2003-01-2625
The cascaded distiller CD5 is a 5-stage, rotary vacuum distiller developed jointly by Honeywell International (USA) and Thermodistillation Co. (Kiev, Ukraine) for processing of human urine and other streams of waste water onboard a spacecraft during long-duration missions. Initial performance testing of the first model of the distiller CD5-1 was conducted at the Thermodistillation laboratory in Kiev in 1999. Results of testing demonstrated superior performance of the machine, but also indicated that performance could be improved. This paper reports on performance of the next generation of the distiller, CD5-2, which is an improved model of the cascaded distiller CD5-1.
Technical Paper

Cascade Distillation Subsystem Hardware Development for Verification Testing

2007-07-09
2007-01-3177
Water recovery from wastewater is essential for the success of long-term missions to the Moon and Mars and human crew operations during explorations of these planets. Honeywell International and the team consisting of Thermodistillation Co. ( Kyiv, Ukraine) and NASA JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division are developing an efficient wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. This subsystem will be tested at the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility. The Wastewater Processing Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) utilizes an innovative and proven multi-stage thermodynamic process to produce purified water efficiently, and its rotary centrifugal design provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport (pumping) under microgravity conditions.
X