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Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

The Psychological and Statistical Design Method for Co-Creation HMI Applications in the Chinese Automotive Market

2017-03-28
2017-01-0650
The automotive industry is dramatically changing. Many automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) proposed new prototype models or concept vehicles to promote a green vehicle image. Non-traditional players bring many latest technologies in the Information Technology (IT) industry to the automotive industry. Typical vehicle’s characteristics became wider compared to those of vehicles a decade ago, and they include not only a driving range, mileage per gallon and acceleration rating, but also many features adopted in the IT industry, such as usability, connectivity, vehicle software upgrade capability and backward compatibility. Consumers expect the latest technology features in vehicles as they enjoy in using digital applications in laptops and mobile phones. These features create a huge challenge for a design of a new vehicle, especially for a human-machine-interface (HMI) system.
Technical Paper

The Impact of RoHS on Electric Vehicles in the Chinese Automotive Market

2016-09-27
2016-01-8124
China has become the world’s largest vehicle market in terms of sales volume. Automobiles sales keep growing in recent years despite the declining economic growth rate. Due to the increasing attention given to the environmental impact, more stringent emission regulations are being drafted to control traditional internal combustion engine emissions. In order to reduce vehicle emissions, environmentally-friendly new-energy vehicles, such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles, are being promoted by government policies. The Chinese government plans to boost sales of new-energy cars to account for about five percent of China’s total vehicle sales. It is well known that more electric and electronic components will be integrated into a vehicle platform during vehicle electrification.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Electronic Engine Diagnostics

1990-10-01
901158
Software systems on electronically controlled diesel truck engines typically provide diagnostic features to enable the engine mechanic to identify and debug system problems. As future systems become more sophisticated, so will the diagnostic requirements. The advantages of serviceability and accuracy found in todays electronic systems must not be allowed to degrade due to this increased sophistication. One method of maintaining a high level of serviceability and accuracy is to place an even greater priority on diagnostics and servicing in the initial design phase of the product than is done today. In particular, three major goals of future diagnostic systems should be separation of component failures from system failures, prognostication of failures and analysis of engine performance. This paper will discuss a system to realize these goals by dividing the diagnostic task into the Electronic System Diagnostics, Engine System Diagnostics and the Diagnostic Interface.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mounting Structure Stiffness on Mounting System Isolation Performance on Off-Highway Machines

2015-06-15
2015-01-2350
Off-highway machine mounting system isolation, especially the cab mounting system, significantly affects the operator comfort by providing damping to the harsh inputs and isolating the structure-borne energy from traveling into the cab. Mounting system isolation performance is decided not only by the isolation component, but also the mounting bracket structure, and should be treated as a system. This paper gives a review of how the mounting system isolates structural energy and the effect of the bracket structure stiffness to the mounting system isolation performance.
Technical Paper

The Artificial Intelligence Application Strategy in Powertrain and Machine Control

2015-09-29
2015-01-2860
The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the automotive industry can dramatically reshape the industry. In past decades, many Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) applied neural network and pattern recognition technologies to powertrain calibration, emission prediction and virtual sensor development. The AI application is mostly focused on reducing product development and validation cost. AI technologies in these applications demonstrate certain cost-saving benefits, but are far from disruptive. A disruptive impact can be realized when AI applications finally bring cost-saving benefits directly to end users (e.g., automation of a vehicle or machine operation could dramatically improve the efficiency). However, there is still a gap between current technologies and those that can fully give a vehicle or machine intelligence, including reasoning, knowledge, planning and self-learning.
Technical Paper

Strategies for Developing Performance Standards for Alternative Hydraulic Fluids

2000-09-11
2000-01-2540
There has been an ongoing interest in replacing mineral oil with more biodegradable and/or fire-resistant hydraulic fluids in many mobile equipment applications. Although many alternative fluids may be more biodegradable, or fire-resistant, or both than mineral oil, they often suffer from other limitations such as poorer wear, oxidative stability, and yellow metal corrosion which inhibit their performance in high-pressure hydraulic systems, particularly high pressure piston pump applications. From the fluid supplier's viewpoint, the development of a definitive test, or series of tests, that provides sufficient information to determine how a given fluid would perform with various hydraulic components would be of interest because it would minimize extensive testing. This is often too slow or prohibitively expensive. Furthermore, from OEM's (original equipment manufacturer's) point of view, it would be advantageous to develop a more effective, industry accepted fluid analysis screening.
Technical Paper

Results of Applying a Families-of-Systems Approach to Systems Engineering of Product Line Families

2002-11-18
2002-01-3086
Most of the history of systems engineering has been focused on processes for engineering a single complex system. However, most large enterprises design, manufacture, operate, sell, or support not one product but multiple product lines of related but varying systems. They seek to optimize time to market, costs of development and production, leverage of intellectual assets, best use of talented human resources, overall competitiveness, overall profitability and productivity. Optimizing globally across multiple product lines does not follow from treating each system family member as an independently engineered system or product. Traditional systems engineering principles can be generalized to apply to families. This article includes a multi-year case study of the actual use of a generic model-based systems engineering methodology for families, Systematica™, across the embedded electronic systems products of one of the world's largest manufacturers of heavy equipment.
Technical Paper

Process Control Standards for Technology Development

1998-04-08
981502
Engineering new technology and products challenges managers to balance design innovation and program risk. To do this, managers need methods to judge future results to avoid program and product disasters. Besides the traditional prediction tools of schedule, simulations and “iron tests”, process control standards (with measurements) can also be applied to the development programs to mitigate risks. This paper briefly discusses the theory and case history behind some new process control methods and standards currently in place at Caterpillar's Electrical & Electronics department. Process standards reviewed in this paper include process mapping, ISO9001, process controls, and process improvement models (e.g. SEI's CMMs.)
Technical Paper

Linkage and Structural Optimization of an Earth Moving Machine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0496
Faced with competitive environments, pressure to lower development costs and aggressive timelines engineers are not only increasingly adopting numerical simulation techniques but are also embracing design optimization schemes to augment their efforts. These techniques not only provide more understanding of the trade-offs but are also capable of proactively guiding the decision making process. However, design optimization and exploration tools have struggled to find complete acceptance and are typically underutilized in many applications; especially in situations where the algorithms have to compete with existing swift decision making processes. In this paper we demonstrate how the type of setup and algorithmic choice can have an influence and make optimization more lucrative in a new product development atmosphere. We also present some results from a design exploration activity, involving linkage and structural development, of an earth moving machine application.
Technical Paper

Lean-NOx and Plasma Catalysis Over γ-Alumina for Heavy Duty Diesel Applications

2001-09-24
2001-01-3569
The NOx reduction performance under lean conditions over γ-alumina was evaluated using a micro-reactor system and a non-thermal plasma-equipped bench test system. Various alumina samples were obtained from alumina manufacturers to assess commercial alumina materials. In addition, γ-alumina samples were synthesized at Caterpillar with a sol-gel technique in order to control alumina properties. The deNOx performances of the alumina samples were compared. The alumina samples were characterized with analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and surface area measurements (BET) to understand physical and chemical properties. The information derived from these techniques was correlated with the NOx reduction performance to identify key parameters of γ-alumina for optimizing materials for lean-NOx and plasma assisted catalysis.
Technical Paper

Initiating a Values Based Culture at Track-Type Tractors Division of Caterpillar Inc.

1999-03-01
1999-01-0250
During the early 1990s, the Track-Type Tractors Division (TTTD) of Caterpillar Inc. experienced several challenges. The Division faced increasing global competition in the midst of an economic recession. Although intense plant modernization and reorganization occurred in the five previous years, the business unit was not profitable. In 1993, Track-Type Tractors Division instituted its solution -- a change in its culture. Previously, the culture hindered the division’s ability to move forward. This was revealed in a 1992 review detailing the major obstacles inhibiting management from achieving divisional goals. The division leaders recognized that a change in business philosophy, as opposed to further plant modernization, was required to achieve production goals and stay globally competitive.
Technical Paper

Induction Hardening Simulation of Steel and Cast Iron Components

2002-03-19
2002-01-1557
The induction hardening process involves a complex interaction of electromagnetic heating, rapid cooling, metallurgical phase transformations, and mechanical behavior. Many factors including induction coil design, power, frequency, scanning velocity, workpiece geometry, material chemistry, and quench severity determine a process outcome. This paper demonstrates an effective application of a numerical analysis tool for understanding of induction hardening. First, an overview of the Caterpillar induction simulation tool is briefly discussed. Then, several important features of the model development are examined. Finally, two examples illustrating the use of the computer simulation tool for solving induction-hardening problems related to cracking and distortion are presented. These examples demonstrate the tool's ability to simulate changes in process parameters and latitude of modeling steel or cast iron.
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

FD&E Total Life T-Sample Residual Stress Analytical Predictions and Measured Results

2019-04-02
2019-01-0528
The Society of Automotive Engineers Fatigue Design & Evaluation Committee [SAE FD&E] is actively working on a total life project for weldments, in which the welding residual stress is a key contributor to an accurate assessment of fatigue life. Physics-based welding process simulation and various types of residual stress measurements were pursued to provide a representation of the residual stress field at the failure location in the fatigue samples. A well-controlled and documented robotic welding process was used for all sample fabrications to provide accurate inputs for the welding simulations. One destructive (contour method) residual stress measurement and several non-destructive residual stress measurements-surface X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD), and neutron diffraction (ND)-were performed on the same or similarly welded samples.
Technical Paper

Engine Electronics Technology

1993-09-01
932404
Electronics technology has evolved significantly since the first electronically controlled heavy duty on-highway truck engines were introduced in the mid 1980's. Engine control hardware, software, and sensor designs have been driven by many factors. Emissions regulations, fuel economy, engine performance, operator features, fleet management information, diagnostics, vehicle integration, reliability, and new electronics technology are some of those factors. The latest engine electronics technology is not only found in heavy duty on-highway trucks, but in off-highway applications as well. Track-type tractors, haul trucks, wheel loaders, and agricultural tractors now benefit from the advantages of electronic engines. And, many more new applications are being developed.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

1997-04-01
971559
This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar’s Autonomous Journey - The Argument for Autonomy

2016-09-27
2016-01-8005
Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continue to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

1999-09-14
1999-01-2865
There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

Application of a Self-Adjusting Audible Warning Device as a Backup Alarm for Mobile Earthmoving Equipment

2005-11-01
2005-01-3507
Most pieces of mobile equipment (machines) produce an audible signal to indicate movement in the rearward direction. This signal is intended to alert nearby personnel of the potential danger associated with the machine moving in a direction where the operator may not be able to see people or objects in the machine path. Anyone who has been on or near a construction site recognizes the familiar “beep…beep…beep…” of this signal as the backup alarm. To be effective, the backup alarm must be discernible, timely, and relevant to those people where a reaction is intended. As machine designers respond to various sound directives for reducing sound emissions (including the backup alarm), the performance of the backup alarm is receiving special attention. An emerging solution is an alarm capable of sensing ambient sounds and producing an audible signal proportional to the sensed sound levels-a self-adjusting backup alarm.
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