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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Vibration Analysis of the Steering Wheel of a Passenger Car Due to the Tire Nonuniformity

The vehicle vibrations result from the exciting forces which are caused by air force, engine firing, tire mass unbalance, and tire uniformity. Especially, the shake and shimmy phenomena in the steering system are closely related to the vehicle vibration, the tire unbalance, and the tire uniformity. This paper presents the shimmy phenomenon due to the tire mass unbalance and the tire uniformity in order to investigate their effects.
Technical Paper

Vehicle electric power simulator for optimizing the electric charging system

The electrical power system is the vital lifeline to most of the control systems on modern vehicles. The demands on the system are highly complex, and a detailed understanding of the system behavior is necessary both to the process of systems integration and to the economic design of a specific control system or actuator. The vehicle electric power system, which consists of two major components: a generator and a battery, has to provide numerous electrical and electronic systems with enough electrical energy. A detailed understanding of the characteristics of the electric power system, electrical load demands, and the driving environment such as road, season, and vehicle weight are required when the capacities of the generator and the battery are to be determined for a vehicle. An easy-to-use and inexpensive simulation program may be needed to avoid the over/under design problem of the electric power system. A vehicle electric power simulator is developed in this study.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Ride Comfort and Brake Judder Dynamics Analysis Considering Nonlinear Characteristics

In this paper, four different levels of finite element models of a full vehicle were developed for ride comfort and brake judder dynamics analysis. The differences between the models are how elasticity of various vehicle components is modeled. The dynamic analysis was performed considering nonlinear effects for the different levels of models. The nonlinear effects were characterized by frequency and amplitude dependent stiffness and damping values of hydraulic engine mounting, suspension lower control arm bushing, tire, shock absorber, and suspension friction. At each modeling level, simulation results were compared to those of test measurements. The differences of the analysis results of these models and the effect of nonlinear characteristics were investigated. The developed models were applied to ride comfort and brake judder dynamics analysis.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Two-Step Hood Opening System Development for Easier Hood Opening Operation

Recently, the demand for improving the merchantability of hood open system has been increasing. A novel concept hood open system was proposed by Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) in 2012, which was based on a two-step open latch mechanism. The new hood opening mechanism satisfies Safety laws and improves merchantability.
Technical Paper

Three-way catalysts for partial lean-burn engine vehicle

Emission of carbon dioxide from mobile sources seriously concerned to solve greenhouse effect and high price of gasoline in some countries have resulted in the development of lean-burn concept engine. In spite of many studies on the lean deNOx catalyst, we have no clear solution to obtain high fuel economy and high efficiency of NOx conversion in lean-burn application. This paper describes applicability and problems of NOx adsorber system to partial lean-burn vehicle, the development of three-way catalyst with improvement of washcoat technology based on three-way catalyst used for gasoline application, and comparison test results of evaluations is synthesized gas activity test, Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, etc. This study shows improved three-way catalysts in partial lean- burn vehicle have max. 89% of NOx conversion in FTP without adding rich spike and regeneration functions to engine management system.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Crankshaft Vibration Analysis Including Gyroscopic Effect

It has been recently reported that the crankshaft vibration provides the main exciting source in the power train vibration. This paper presents the analytical method for the vibration of crankshaft by using the finite element method. The optimization process is employed so that the beam model of the crankshaft can have the same natural frequencies as those of solid model on the free-free condition. The mode analysis of the crankshaft whirling is made in the consideration of the gyroscopic effect and the changes of the natural frequencies are also studied with the increase of the engine speed. Finally, the forced vibration of the crankshaft is solved on the time domain and the results are compared with those of the experimental measurements of bending moment by using the strain gage. This crankshft system model can be used to analyze the forced vibration of the full power train as well.
Technical Paper

Thermal Load in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with EUI System

High pressure fuel injection systems, such as common rail (CR) systems and electronically-controlled unit injector (EUI) systems, have been widely applied to modern heavy duty diesel engines. They are shown to be very effective for achieving high power density with high fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions. However, the increased peak combustion pressure gives additional structural stress and thermal load to engine structure. Thus, proper material selection and thermal analysis of engine components are essential in order to meet the durability requirements of heavy-duty diesel engines adopting a high pressure injection system. In this paper, thermal analysis of a 12.9 ℓ diesel engine with an EUI system was studied. Temperatures were measured on a cylinder head, a piston and a cylinder liner. A specially designed linkage system was used to measure the piston temperatures. A radio-tracer technique was also used to verify the rotation of piston rings.
Technical Paper

The development of the autonomous driving system for a car-to-car crash test

To simulate the car-to-car crash accidents in the real field, the Autonomous Driving System was developed. This system consists of communicating, sensing, accelerating, braking, steering and data recording subsystems. All these were designed to be compact, light and collapsible, so that the crash characteristics of test vehicle were not affected. The velocity performance of the system covers from 10 kph to 100 kph within ± 0.5 kph error, and the lateral deviation is constrained within ± 20 mm. With this system, several frontal offset and side car-to-car crash tests were carried out successfully. Deformations, injury levels, deceleration signals and dynamic behaviors during crash were typically investigated. And the dynamic behaviors were compared with the simulation results of EDSMAC. Car-to-car crash tests between small and large vehicles with different masses were carried out and the effects on the compatibility were investigated.
Technical Paper

The development of in-vehicle unit of advanced vehicle information and communication system

This paper presents an in-vehicle information system, AVICS in development. With AVICS, the driver could get the various information on traffic, news, weather, restaurants, and so on, which the AVICS information center provides via mobile telecommunication network. The driver requests the information to operator in center by voice with hands-free system or by handling the menu offered in the form of web-page. The in-vehicle unit for AVICS is designed to interface with wireless network with a built-in RF MODEM, to control NAVI system, and to display the information on the LCD monitor of AV system. The Internet browser is customized to parse specific HTML tags, application software is realized on 32-bit RISC processor. In this paper, we will overview the concept of AVICS and focus on development of in-vehicle unit of AVICS.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
Technical Paper

The Study of the Structure for the Head Protection on Front Pillar in Crash or Rollover of the Vehicle

In order to meet FMVSS 201 (U) requirements, the upper vehicle interior structures with trim in a vehicle need to be properly designed to minimize injuries when head impacts these components. This paper presents a study of countermeasures in pillars using FEA approach by considering some design factors. Optimal designs are then selected for interior head impact protection based on CAE analysis using LS-DYNA non-linear finite element code.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Parameter of Roof Rack & Cross Bar for the Reduction of Wind Noise

An increasing number of cars which are being used to foster leisure and a convenient life for consumers are being outfitted with roof racks and/or cross bars. This trend of installing roof racks is partly for the function of carrying objects on the roof of the vehicle and partly as a way to affect the style and exterior look of the vehicle. Therefore, the application of roof racks and cross bars is becoming increasingly important in the automotive industry. Because of the expanding application of roof racks on vehicles, the challenge of reducing wind noise caused by exposed cross bars becomes the main issue in this field. For solving this problem, the cross bar shape is designed and evaluated in the development stage, and if there is a problem, it is re-designed and re-evaluated many times. This repetitive corrective action is called “trial and error”.
Technical Paper

The Study of HC Emission Characteristics and Combustion Stability with Spark Timing Retard at Cold Start in Gasoline Engine Vehicle

In this study, the mass of THC is reduced almost 40 percent with spark timing ATDC 7.8CA during 15 seconds from engine start in phase 1 LA4 mode, comparison with TDC 2.8CA (Figure 1, Table 3). One of the reason of HC reduction in vehicle test is reduction of raw THC concentration before CCC (Closed Coupled Catalyst) which is 36% lower level (Figure 3, Table 3). The other reason is that the LOT (Light Off Time) of catalyst is shortened from 34 seconds to below 20 seconds (Figure 7, Table 3). As the spark timing is retarded with same intake air quantity and same RPM, BMEP is reduced (Equation (3), Figure 9). Therefore in order to operate in an idle RPM in vehicle, the mass of intake air should be increased (Figure 5). So a catalyst is heated in shorter period.
Technical Paper

The Stability Analysis of Steering and Suspension Parameters on Hands Free Motion

Hands-free stability, one of the handling characteristics of a vehicle, is a stability criterion evaluated in case of a driver's steering wheel release after a certain steering input during driving. During the development process, a hands-free-unstable vehicle needs many steering and suspension parts to be repeatedly tested to improve the performance. In this paper, CAE methods are proposed to investigate easily the influence of the steering and suspension design parameters on the hands-free stability. And the results of CAE methods were compared with the prototype vehicle test to verify the validity of the methods.
Technical Paper

The Root Cause Analysis of Steel Fuel Tank Cracking at a Fatigue Point and Test Method Development of Durability

Fuel tank in vehicle must hold the fuel in a stable way under any driving condition. However, the fuel tank might not conserve the fuel firmly in case a crack emerged while the fuel tank is exposed to different driving condition. Basically, when the engine is in purging at a normal ambient temperature before fuel boiling, the pressure inside the fuel tank decreases. However, the pressure inside a fuel tank increases while a vehicle is driven at extreme hot ambient temperature as fuel is boiling. This repetitive pressure change in the fuel tank comes with fuel tank’s physical expansion and shrink, which would cause a damage to the fuel tank. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the root cause of why fuel tank cracks at a fatigue point. We also aim to set up the method of how to test durability of the fuel tank in association with the pressure inside the tank.