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Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Vehicle Velocity and Engine Mount Stiffness on Ride Comfort

For the improvement of ride quality, development of vibration damping control systems and isolating methods become more important. To define basic ride vibrational modes, the effects of vehicle velocity and wheelbase on the standard road surfaces should be investigated. The different vibrational responses depending on the measurement positions of a vehicle body are presented with the bounce and the pitch motions. A methodology for the isolation of engine mount system's resonance to the road input and periodical excitations of tire/wheel nonuniformity forces are discussed. Using the computer simulation and the experimental results, a useful ride model with respect to the vehicle velocity and the stiffness of engine mount is presented.
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of ABS and RSC Control Algorithms for a 6×4 Tractor and Trailer Models using SIL Simulation

A Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) simulation is presented here wherein control algorithms for the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) and Roll Stability Control (RSC) system were developed in Simulink. Vehicle dynamics models of a 6×4 cab-over tractor and two trailer combinations were developed in TruckSim and were used for control system design. Model validation was performed by doing various dynamic maneuvers like J-Turn, double lane change, decreasing radius curve, high dynamic steer input and constant radius test with increasing speed and comparing the vehicle responses obtained from TruckSim against field test data. A commercial ESC ECU contains two modules: Roll Stability Control (RSC) and Yaw Stability Control (YSC). In this research, only the RSC has been modeled. The ABS system was developed based on the results obtained from a HIL setup that was developed as a part of this research.
Journal Article

Integrated Chassis Control for Improving On-Center Handling Behavior

This paper proposes a new integrated chassis control (ICC) using a predictive model-based control (MPC) for optimal allocation of sub-chassis control systems where a predictive model has 6 Degree of Freedom (DoF) for rigid body dynamics. The 6 DoF predictive vehicle model consists of longitudinal, lateral, vertical, roll, pitch, and yaw motions while previous MPC research uses a 3 DoF maximally predictive model such as longitudinal, lateral and yaw motions. The sub-chassis control systems in this paper include four wheel individual braking torque control, four wheel individual driving torque control and four corner active suspension control. Intermediate control inputs for sub-chassis control systems are simplified as wheel slip ratio changes for driving and braking controls and vertical suspension force changes for an active suspension control.
Technical Paper

In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Enhancement of Vehicle Dynamics Model Using Genetic Algorithm and Estimation Theory

A determination of the vehicle states and tire forces is critical to the stability of vehicle dynamic behavior and to designing automotive control systems. Researchers have studied estimation methods for the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. However, the accuracy of the estimation methods is closely related to the employed model. In this paper, tire lag dynamics is introduced in the model. Also application of estimation methods in order to improve the model accuracy is presented. The model is developed by using the global searching algorithm, a Genetic Algorithm, so that the model can be used in the nonlinear range. The extended Kalman filter and sliding mode observer theory are applied to estimate the vehicle state vectors and tire forces. The obtained results are compared with measurements and the outputs from the ADAMS full vehicle model. [15]
Technical Paper

Effect of Normalized Microstructure in Alloy Steel on the Performance of Planetary Gear Set of Automatic Transmission

The banded microstructure of pearlite and ferrite in normalized alloy steel is susceptible to thermal distortion during carburizing process due to its unidirectional orientation parallel to rolling direction. The planetary gears with material of banded microstructure have been experienced in high thermal distortion during carburizing and quenching process and result in uneven surface hardness and effective case depth at the inside of pinion gear after honing. These defects played failure initiation site roles in durability test during development of new automatic transmission. The galling between the contacting components in severe lubricating system was the main failure mechanism. Double normalizing at 920 °C was designed to resolve the banded microstructure of normalized alloy steel. The microstructure and grain size of the double heated steel became equiaxed and fine due to homogenizing and recrystallization through double heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Development of Supercarburized Tappet Shim to Improve Fuel Economy

A newly developed surface hardening process, supercarburizing, has been developed for the application of tappet shim to improve fuel economy. Supercarburizing has been introduced to increase resistance of wear and pitting performance and was designed to have supersaturated carbon surface layer and further to have spheroidized carbide morphology. In this presentation, the process variables, such as surface microstructure, morphology and distribution of carbide precipitation, will be discussed via the results of friction loss tests. At an entire speed range investigated, the application of supercarburized tappet shim improved fuel economy with 25∼30% in terms of valve train itself and with 4∼5% concerning on the gross engine performance. The fuel economy analysis showed that the improved surface hardening process of tappet shim increased fuel economy of vehicle about 1.4∼3.6%.
Technical Paper

Development of Integrated Chassis Control for Limit Handling

This paper presents the integrated chassis control(ICC) of four-wheel drive(4WD), electronic stability control(ESC), electronic control suspension(ECS), and active roll stabilizer(ARS) for limit handling. The ICC consists of three layers: 1) a supervisor determines target vehicle states; 2) upper level controller calculates generalized forces; 3) lower level controller, which is contributed in this paper, optimally allocates the generalized force to chassis modules. The lower level controller consists of two integrated parts, 1) longitudinal force control part (4WD/ESC) and 2) vertical force control part (ECS/ARS). The principal concept of both algorithms is optimally utilizing the capability of the each tire by monitoring tire saturation, with tire combined slip. By monitoring tire saturation, 4WD/ESC integrated system minimizes the sum of the tire saturation, and ECS/ARS integrated system minimizes the variance of the tire saturation.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Technical Paper

An Optimal Design Software For Vehicle Suspension Systems

Vehicle suspensions can be regarded as interconnection of rigid bodies with kinematic joints and compliance elements such as springs, bushings, and stabilizers. Design of a suspension system requires detailed specification of the interconnection point (or so called hard points) and characteristic values of compliance elements. During the design process, these design variables are determined to meet some prescribed performance targets expressed in terms of SDFs(Suspension Design Factors), such as toe, camber, compliance steer, etc. This paper elaborates on a systematic approach to achieve optimum design of suspension systems.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

A Method to Analyze “The Imaginary Kingpin Axis” in Multi-Link Type Suspension Systems

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method to analyze the imaginary kingpin axis in multi-link type suspension mechanisms by using the Displacement Matrix method, the instantaneous screw axis theory, and the nonlinear equation solver “DESIGN”.[1][2] The mathematical logic and a Kinematic theory used in this method have been developed a long time ago. But the key point of this method is how accurate and effective we can get the information on design parameters related to the imaginary kingpin axis existing only in the multi-link type suspension, especially in the initial stage of suspension geometry design.