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Technical Paper

A Development of Urea Solution Injection Quantity Decision Logic for SCR System

In this project, phenomena in a SCR catalyst, such as heat transfer and catalytic reactions, are modeled numerically. The model is simplified to be integrated on an electronic control unit. The calibration process for this model has been developed, which is performed on gas bench and validated on a vehicle equipped with a Urea-SCR system and a Rapid Prototype Control Unit. With this simplified SCR reaction model, it is possible to estimate NH3 consumption and properly control the urea injection quantity with less calibration efforts.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A Sensor Fusion Digital-Map System for Driver Assistance

A traffic situation is getting more complex in urban areas. Various safety systems of an automobile have been developed but fatal and serious accidents still can be made by driver's faults or distractions. The system supporting extend of driver's recognition area is going to be an important part of future intelligent vehicles in order to prevent accidents. In this paper we propose sensor fusion system based on a digital-map for driver assistance. The accurate localization of a host vehicle is achieved by a stereo vision sensor and a digital-map using polygon matching algorithm in urban area. A single-row laser scanner is used for tracking multiple moving objects. The coordinate transformation from sensor frame to global frame is performed to visualize the moving objects on a digital-map. An experiment was conducted in an urban canyon where the GPS signals are frequently interrupted.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement on US Fuel Economy Test Cycle by Model Based Cooled HP EGR System and Robust Logic through S-FMEA

This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Flow in the Engine Intake System

To design an optimum engine intake system, a flow model for the intake manifold was developed by the method of characteristics. The flow in the intake manifold was one-dimensional, and finite difference equations were derived from the governing equations of flow. The thermodynamic properties inside a cylinder were found by the first law of thermodynamics, and the boundary conditions were formulated using a steady flow model. By comparing the calculated results with experimental data, the appropriate boundary conditions and convergence limits for a flow model were established. From this model, design variables for the intake system were investigated. The optimum manifold length became shorter when the engine speed were increased. The effect of intake valve timings on inlet air mass was also studied by this model. Advancing intake valve opening decreased inlet air mass slightly, and the optimum intake valve closing was found.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Engine Bearing and Cam/Tappet Contacts from the Measurement of Temperature and Oil Film Thickness

This paper discusses the effects of lubricant viscosity on the friction characteristics of engine bearing and cam/tappet which are the typical moving parts of an engine and operate in different lubrication regimes. Based on the measured crankshaft temperatures, we calculated the friction coefficient of the engine bearing according to Sommerfeld number by a simple heat equilibrium equation. The oil film thicknesses between cam and tappet were measured in a motored cylinder head which had a direct acting type overhead camshaft. The boundary and viscous friction components were estimated separately according to a parameter defined as the ratio of the central oil film thickness to the composite surface roughness. These two friction components were added to calculate the friction coefficient. Finally, the motoring friction torque was measured and compared with the estimated friction coefficient.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strategy and Implementing Technology for the Development of Luxurious Driving Sound

This paper describes a systematic approach to the development of a luxurious driving sound. In the first step, the luxurious sound is conceptualized through jury test, factor analysis and regression analysis. From the results, the main factors and the correlation equation for the luxurious sound are extracted. Also, customer's preference for the luxurious sound is investigated from the customer clinic. In the second step, three core axes and the detailed indices for luxurious sound are defined and quantified. These core axes are a dynamic sound character, a sound balance and a sound harmony. These core axes are also composed of detailed indices and quantified by guide lines. In the third step, each contribution of the sub-systems for sound quality is identified and the target values and methods for implementing the luxurious sound are suggested. In this process, noise path analysis and the customer's preference in each region are considered.
Technical Paper

A study on Reducing the Computing Burden of Misfire Detection using a Conditional Monitoring Method

This paper presents a conditional misfire monitoring method to reduce the computing burden of the motoring. In this conditional monitoring method, the ECU performs misfire detection only when there is high probability of misfire events. The condition for performing the misfire detection is determined by the pre-index which is defined as the deviation of the segment durations of the crankshaft in this paper. The quantity of the code of calculating the pre-index is 7 times less than that of a conventional monitoring method so that the computing burden can be reduced with the conditional monitoring method. The experimental results shown that the pre-index and the conditional monitoring method are valid.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

Active Type Variable Intake System

In this paper, an active type variable intake system is proposed, which improves both engine power and NVH performance. The proposed system uses a magnet valve to control the air path to the engine intake manifold. While other types of variable intake system such as vacuum actuator type or DC motor type need an ECU to control the valve, the proposed system only uses force equilibrium between magnetic force and vacuum pressure, resulting in weight and cost reduction. The system is composed of dual duct (duct A, duct B) and a magnet valve. In low RPM region, the magnet valve is closed and only duct A is used to supply air into the engine. In high RPM region the valve opens up and maximizes the amount of the air that goes into the engine intake manifold. The result is that the output power of the engine is maximized in high RPM region, as well as the NVH performance is improved in low RPM region.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Powder Metal Connecting Rod in the V6 Engine

Today, light connecting rods are vital to satisfying the demands of modern internal combustion engines. HYUNDAI Motor Company (HMC) has applied powder metal forged connecting rods instead of conventional hot forged connecting rods to obtain low product costs and to improve NVH characteristics and bearing reliability. Light connecting rods were developed through optimized design with high quality and low cost. Notably, the mass of a powder metal forged connecting rod is 17.7% lighter than that of a conventional hot forged type connecting rod, and its crank end is 22.5 % lighter than that of a conventional type connecting rod. Light connecting rods result in reduced crankshaft mass, so the mass of the main moving parts can be reduced. With this mass reduction, bearing reliability and NVH characteristics can be enhanced.
Technical Paper

Automated Optimizing Calibration of Engine Driveability on the Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

Engine calibration on the powertrain test bed with transient mode is proposed with dynamic powertrain test bed having low inertia dynamometer. Automated ECU (Engine Control Unit) calibration system is completed with the combination of experimental design software, powertrain test bed, evaluation tools and their electrical interfaces. The process is composed up of the system interface definition, test design using DoE skill, test proceedings by step sequence of connecting systems, measured data collecting, mathematical model and optimization result extraction at the end. All the processes are automated by interfaces between the systems. Acceleration surge is minimized by proposed process by optimizing combustion control labels and tip in driveability is maximized by manipulating torque filter labels of EMS (Engine Management System) logic. Their detailed steps from the problem definition to the verification test results of improved design with vehicle test are presented.
Technical Paper

Available Power and Energy Prediction Using a Simplified Circuit Model of HEV Li-ion Battery

Due to aging of a battery over lifetime, the rated power and nominal energy capacity will be reduced compared with the initial rated power and capacity. These result in influences on the vehicle driving performance and fuel economy. To monitor and diagnose the aging of the battery, in this paper, the method of predicting the available rated power and energy capacity of Li-ion battery under in-vehicle condition is proposed. Under constant power test, available power is calculated from the estimated parameters using recursive least square method. Further, available energy capacity is evaluated through SOH(cn) defined by the ratio of initial state-of-charge (SOC) variation to present SOC (\GdSOC ⁿ /ΔSOC ⁿ ) variation under arbitrary in-vehicle driving cycles. To verify the proposed method, experiments for aging Li-ion battery are performed in hybrid electric vehicle.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Temperature Properties in Al Matrix Composite Fabricated by the Low Pressure Squeeze Infiltration Process

Al matrix composites containing alumina (Al2O3) fibers are fabricated by the low pressure (25MPa) squeeze infiltration process which is suitable for the low cost mass production. Mechanical properties at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures (250°C, 350°C) are improved due to the presence of reinforcements. Upto 350°C, composites maintain a reasonable strength, which is much better than strength of the conventional Al alloy. Composites have equivalent wear rates to those of Ni - resist cast iron. Wear behavior is changed with the sliding speed. At low sliding speed, wear proceeds by the excessive failure of matrix and fiber, whilst, at higher sliding speed, matrix fracture near fiber plays a major role in wear. Wear resistance of 125°C is inferior to that of room temperature due to the reduction of mechanical properties followed by matrix softening and poor bonding.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control of Spark Advance and Air-Fuel Ratio in SI Engines Using Cylinder Pressure

The introduction of inexpensive cylinder pressure sensors provides new opportunities for precise engine control. This paper presents a control strategy of spark advance and air-fuel ratio based upon cylinder pressure for spark ignition engines. In order to extend the cylinder pressure based engine control to a wide range of engine speeds, the appropriate choice of control parameters is important as well as essential. For this control scheme, peak pressure and its location for each cylinder during every engine cycle are the major parameters for controlling the air-fuel ratio and spark timing. However, the conventional method requires the measurement of cylinder pressure at every crank angle degree to determine the peak pressure and its location. In this study, the peak pressure and its location were estimated, using a multi-layer feedforward neural network, which needs only five cylinder pressure samples at -40°, -20°, 0°, 20°, and 40° after TDC.
Technical Paper

Combined Condensing Air-Conditioning System

In order to improve the fuel consumption ratio of the vehicle, a great deal of research is being carried out to improve air-conditioning efficiency. Increasing the efficiency of the condenser is directly connected to the power consumption of the compressor. This paper describes an experimental method of using an additional water-cooled condenser to reduce power consumption and decrease discharge pressure of the air-conditioning system. First, the principle of a combined cooling (water + air) method was evaluated theoretically. Next, experimental proof was conducted with the additional water-cooled condenser. The shape and structure is similar to the plate type of the transmission oil cooler used in a radiator. Through a number of tests, it was found that it is possible is to reduce power consumption of compressor by decreasing discharge pressure.