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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

1994-03-01
940995
The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0561
Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Crankshaft Vibration Analysis Including Gyroscopic Effect

1994-03-01
940699
It has been recently reported that the crankshaft vibration provides the main exciting source in the power train vibration. This paper presents the analytical method for the vibration of crankshaft by using the finite element method. The optimization process is employed so that the beam model of the crankshaft can have the same natural frequencies as those of solid model on the free-free condition. The mode analysis of the crankshaft whirling is made in the consideration of the gyroscopic effect and the changes of the natural frequencies are also studied with the increase of the engine speed. Finally, the forced vibration of the crankshaft is solved on the time domain and the results are compared with those of the experimental measurements of bending moment by using the strain gage. This crankshft system model can be used to analyze the forced vibration of the full power train as well.
Technical Paper

Thermal Load in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with EUI System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0492
High pressure fuel injection systems, such as common rail (CR) systems and electronically-controlled unit injector (EUI) systems, have been widely applied to modern heavy duty diesel engines. They are shown to be very effective for achieving high power density with high fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions. However, the increased peak combustion pressure gives additional structural stress and thermal load to engine structure. Thus, proper material selection and thermal analysis of engine components are essential in order to meet the durability requirements of heavy-duty diesel engines adopting a high pressure injection system. In this paper, thermal analysis of a 12.9 ℓ diesel engine with an EUI system was studied. Temperatures were measured on a cylinder head, a piston and a cylinder liner. A specially designed linkage system was used to measure the piston temperatures. A radio-tracer technique was also used to verify the rotation of piston rings.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Parameters on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with TICS System

1998-02-23
981070
In this study, a series of tests have been carried out to evaluate the effects of the injection rate and timing on bsfc, NOx, and PM emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine with TICS FIE system. Injection line pressure, cylinder pressure, NOx and smoke were measured with various injection times and injection rates. The injection rate was altered at a fixed injection timing, which could be realized either by changing the TICS setting time or by using different cam profiles. The injection time was varied by using TICS timing control function at a given setting time. A parametric study of the injection rate in in-line pump system was tried to correlate injection rate variations with combustion characteristics and emission. Two parameters, the injection pressure rising rate and the initially injected fuel quantity were introduced to characterize fuel injection.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tumble Flow on Engine Performance and Flame Propagation

1993-11-01
931946
In this study, single cylinder engines with different tumble ratio were made to show the effects of tumble motion on engine performance and flame propagation. Particle tracking velocimetry technique by using chopper was adopted to examine the in-cylinder flow field for the full understanding of tumble motion. And equivalent angular speed of tumble vortex was obtained from each crank angle and compared with tumble ratio derived from the steady state flow rig test. Flame propagation speed were obtained with the gasket ionization probe and the piston ionization probe. And the combustion pressure in cylinder was measured to analyze the combustion characteristics. In case of high tumble engine, BSFC and BSHC were decreased and BSNOx was increased at part load test, BMEP and combustion peak pressure was increased at full load test. Also, flame propagation characteristics could be understood by use of piston ionization probe.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Carbon Deposit Formation in Piston Top Ring Groove of Gasoline and Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980526
In order to investigate the characteristics of top ring groove deposit formation in gasoline and diesel engine, engine test and simulation test were performed. From component analysis of used oils sampled from actual running engines, oxidation and nitration for gasoline engine and soot content for diesel engine were selected as main parameters for evaluating oil degradation. In gasoline engine, deposit formation increases linearly with oxidation and nitration, and especially, oil oxidation is a dominant factor on the deposit formation rather than nitration. And, deposit formation increases gradually in low temperature ranges below 260°C even if oils are highly oxidized, but it increases rapidly if piston top ring groove temperature is above 260°C. In diesel engine, deposit formation is highly related to soot content in lubricating oils.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0242
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0245
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1529
This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Technical Paper

Study of optimization about smoke and driveability in diesel engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0315
In an effort to protect the earth''s environment emission regulations in the diesel engine field are becoming increasingly strict. Especially, free acceleration smoke is one of the major concerns because it not only affects the perception for the clearance of diesel engines, but also is regulated by emission legislations. In this report, we will describe how various engine parameters effect the free acceleration smoke and also describe how we can optimize a startability of vehicle simultaneously with the reduction of smoke.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)

1993-03-01
930330
This paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV). The work on FFV has been conducted to evaluate its potential as an alternative to the conventional gasoline vehicle. Hyundai FFV described here can operate on M85, gasoline, or any of their combinations, in which the methanol concentration is measured by an electrostatic type fuel sensor. For that operation, a special FFV ECU has been developed and incorporated in the FFV. The characteristics affecting FFV operation, such as FFV ECU control strategy and injector flow rate, have been investigated and optimized by experiment. Various development tests have been performed in view of engine performance, durability, cold startability, and exhaust emissions reduction. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system being consisted of manifold type catalytic converter(MCC) and secondary air injection system has shown good emission reduction performance including formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0943
In recent years, emission regulations have been getting increasingly strict. In the development of engines that comply with these regulations, in-cylinder pressure plays a fundamental role, as it is necessary to analyze combustion characteristics and control combustion-related parameters. The analysis of in-cylinder pressure data enables the modelling of exhaust emissions in which characteristic temperature can be derived from the in-cylinder pressure, and the pressure can be used for other investigations, such as optimizing efficiency and emissions through controlling combustion. Therefore, a piezoelectric pressure sensor to measure in-cylinder pressure is an essential element in the engine research field. However, it is difficult to practice the installation of this pressure sensor on all engines and on-road vehicles owing to cost issues.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Packing Design for Manifold Catalytic Converter Application

1996-02-01
960561
A preconverter is an essential component of the new vehicle exhaust system for the achievement of tightened emission standards. To meet those standards, the Manifold Catalytic Converter (MCC) system has been developed in the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC). Unfortunately, the conventional MCC is no longer a suitable design for the exhaust gas treatment of the newly developed high performance engine since it cannot withstand the engine's exhaust temperature, vibration, pressure pulsation, and many other severe conditions. This paper is focused on a failure-mode analysis and new packing designs for the MCC application through a series of durability tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Parametric Study of a Six-Stroke Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) Engine Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0207
Numerical investigation of engine performance and emissions of a six-stroke gasoline compression ignition (GCI) engine combustion at low load conditions is presented. In order to identify the effects of additional two strokes of the six-stroke engine cycle on the thermal and chemical conditions of charge mixtures, an in-house multi-dimensional CFD code coupled with high fidelity physical sub-models along with the Chemkin library was employed. The combustion and emissions were calculated using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for a 14-component gasoline surrogate fuel. Two power strokes per cycle were achieved using multiple injections during compression strokes. Parametric variations of injection strategy viz., individual injection timing for both the power strokes and the split ratio that enable the control of combustion phasing of both the power strokes were explored.
Journal Article

Mode-Dynamic Task Allocation and Scheduling for an Engine Management Real-Time System Using a Multicore Microcontroller

2014-04-01
2014-01-0257
A variety of methodologies to use embedded multicore controllers efficiently has been discussed in the last years. Several assumptions are usually made in the automotive domain, such as static assignment of tasks to the cores. This paper shows an approach for efficient task allocation depending on different system modes. An engine management system (EMS) is used as application example, and the performance improvement compared to static allocation is assessed. The paper is structured as follows: First the control algorithms for the EMS will be classified according to operating modes. The classified algorithms will be allocated to the cores, depending on the operating mode. We identify mode transition points, allowing a reliable switch without neglecting timing requirements. As a next step, it will be shown that a load distribution by mode-dependent task allocation would be better balanced than a static task allocation.
Technical Paper

MEMS Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement of Exhaust Gas

2013-03-25
2013-01-0011
To meet Euro6 regulation particulate matter MEMS sensor is suggested. This sensor detects induced charges by PM. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, surface area of the sensor is increased by MEMS process. Sensor is made by low resistive silicon. Total size is 4.3 mm x 59.4 mm x 1 mm and size of sensor part is 4.3 mm x 13 mm. On the backside of the sensor, Pt heater is fabricated to remove piled PM on sensor part. After sensor part, charge amplifier is used to measure the induced charge of the sensor. From FFT of sensor signal, it can sense 5.46 mg/m₃ of PM. In this paper, MEMS devices for exhaust system monitoring of automobiles are investigated. PM emitted from diesel engine is charged particle. Charge-induced-type PM sensor we designed can measure by real time and it doesn't need particle collection apparatus
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Estimation Algorithm for Variable Valve Lift (VVL) Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0785
In a multi-cylinder variable valve lift (VVL) engine, in spite of its high efficiency and low emission performance, operation of the variable valve lift brings about not only variation of the air-fuel ratio at the exhaust manifold, but also individual cylinder air-fuel ratio maldistribution. In this study, in order to reduce the air-fuel ratio variation and maldistribution, we propose an individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation algorithm for individual cylinder air-fuel ratio control. For the purpose of the individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation, air charging dynamics are modeled according to valve lift conditions. In addition, based on the air charging model, individual cylinder air-fuel ratios are estimated by multi-rate sampling from single universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor located on the exhaust manifold. Estimation results are validated with a one-dimensional engine simulation tool.
Technical Paper

In search of SULEV-compliant THC emission reduction technologies

2000-06-12
2000-05-0298
This paper describes the development of THC reduction technologies compliant with SULEV regulations. Technologies embodied by the developmental work include improvement of fuel spay atomization, quick warm-up through coolant control shut off, and acceleration of fuel atomization for the fast rise of cylinder head temp inside the water jacket as well as the improvement of combustion state. The technologies likewise entail reduced HC while operating in lean A/F condition during engine warm-up with the cold lean-burn technology, individual cylinder A/F control for improvement of catalytic converting efficiency, aftertreatment such as thin-wall catalyst, HC absorber and EHC and etc., through vehicle application evaluation in cold start. We carried out an experimental as well as a practical study against SULEV regulations, and the feasibility of adopting these items in vehicle was likewise investigated.
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