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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

Virtual NOx sensor for Transient Operation in Light-Duty Diesel Engine

Currently, diesel engine-out exhaust NOx emission level prediction is a major challenge for complying with the stricter emission legislation and for control purpose of the after-treatment system. Most of the NOx prediction research is based on the Zeldovich thermal mechanism, which is reasonable from the physical point of view and for its simplicity. Nevertheless, there are some predictable range limitations, such as low temperature with high EGR rate operating conditions or high temperature with low EGR rates. In the present paper, 3 additional considerations, pilot burned gas mixing before the main injection; major NO formation area; concentration correction, were applied to the previously developed real-time NO estimation model based on in-cylinder pressure and data available from ECU. The model improvement was verified on a 1.6 liter EURO5 diesel engine in both steady and transient operation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Ride Comfort and Brake Judder Dynamics Analysis Considering Nonlinear Characteristics

In this paper, four different levels of finite element models of a full vehicle were developed for ride comfort and brake judder dynamics analysis. The differences between the models are how elasticity of various vehicle components is modeled. The dynamic analysis was performed considering nonlinear effects for the different levels of models. The nonlinear effects were characterized by frequency and amplitude dependent stiffness and damping values of hydraulic engine mounting, suspension lower control arm bushing, tire, shock absorber, and suspension friction. At each modeling level, simulation results were compared to those of test measurements. The differences of the analysis results of these models and the effect of nonlinear characteristics were investigated. The developed models were applied to ride comfort and brake judder dynamics analysis.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drift Investigation during Straight Line Accelerating and Braking

A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. The multibody dynamic analysis of vehicle drift during accelerating and braking are performed. This paper focuses on modeling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, engine mounting and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment. Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side is considered cause of drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of acceleration, the interaction of differential friction and driveshaft stiffness and their influence on drift are also studied. For braking condition, suspension parameters such as initial toe variation of rear coupled torsion beam axle type suspension and kingpin inclination deviation of front suspension are studied including the braking force difference.
Technical Paper

Three-way catalysts for partial lean-burn engine vehicle

Emission of carbon dioxide from mobile sources seriously concerned to solve greenhouse effect and high price of gasoline in some countries have resulted in the development of lean-burn concept engine. In spite of many studies on the lean deNOx catalyst, we have no clear solution to obtain high fuel economy and high efficiency of NOx conversion in lean-burn application. This paper describes applicability and problems of NOx adsorber system to partial lean-burn vehicle, the development of three-way catalyst with improvement of washcoat technology based on three-way catalyst used for gasoline application, and comparison test results of evaluations is synthesized gas activity test, Federal Test Procedure (FTP) test, etc. This study shows improved three-way catalysts in partial lean- burn vehicle have max. 89% of NOx conversion in FTP without adding rich spike and regeneration functions to engine management system.
Technical Paper

Three Dimensional Crankshaft Vibration Analysis Including Gyroscopic Effect

It has been recently reported that the crankshaft vibration provides the main exciting source in the power train vibration. This paper presents the analytical method for the vibration of crankshaft by using the finite element method. The optimization process is employed so that the beam model of the crankshaft can have the same natural frequencies as those of solid model on the free-free condition. The mode analysis of the crankshaft whirling is made in the consideration of the gyroscopic effect and the changes of the natural frequencies are also studied with the increase of the engine speed. Finally, the forced vibration of the crankshaft is solved on the time domain and the results are compared with those of the experimental measurements of bending moment by using the strain gage. This crankshft system model can be used to analyze the forced vibration of the full power train as well.
Technical Paper

Thermal Load in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine with EUI System

High pressure fuel injection systems, such as common rail (CR) systems and electronically-controlled unit injector (EUI) systems, have been widely applied to modern heavy duty diesel engines. They are shown to be very effective for achieving high power density with high fuel efficiency and low exhaust gas emissions. However, the increased peak combustion pressure gives additional structural stress and thermal load to engine structure. Thus, proper material selection and thermal analysis of engine components are essential in order to meet the durability requirements of heavy-duty diesel engines adopting a high pressure injection system. In this paper, thermal analysis of a 12.9 ℓ diesel engine with an EUI system was studied. Temperatures were measured on a cylinder head, a piston and a cylinder liner. A specially designed linkage system was used to measure the piston temperatures. A radio-tracer technique was also used to verify the rotation of piston rings.
Technical Paper

The Study of HC Emission Characteristics and Combustion Stability with Spark Timing Retard at Cold Start in Gasoline Engine Vehicle

In this study, the mass of THC is reduced almost 40 percent with spark timing ATDC 7.8CA during 15 seconds from engine start in phase 1 LA4 mode, comparison with TDC 2.8CA (Figure 1, Table 3). One of the reason of HC reduction in vehicle test is reduction of raw THC concentration before CCC (Closed Coupled Catalyst) which is 36% lower level (Figure 3, Table 3). The other reason is that the LOT (Light Off Time) of catalyst is shortened from 34 seconds to below 20 seconds (Figure 7, Table 3). As the spark timing is retarded with same intake air quantity and same RPM, BMEP is reduced (Equation (3), Figure 9). Therefore in order to operate in an idle RPM in vehicle, the mass of intake air should be increased (Figure 5). So a catalyst is heated in shorter period.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Vehicle Velocity and Engine Mount Stiffness on Ride Comfort

For the improvement of ride quality, development of vibration damping control systems and isolating methods become more important. To define basic ride vibrational modes, the effects of vehicle velocity and wheelbase on the standard road surfaces should be investigated. The different vibrational responses depending on the measurement positions of a vehicle body are presented with the bounce and the pitch motions. A methodology for the isolation of engine mount system's resonance to the road input and periodical excitations of tire/wheel nonuniformity forces are discussed. Using the computer simulation and the experimental results, a useful ride model with respect to the vehicle velocity and the stiffness of engine mount is presented.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Parameters on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with TICS System

In this study, a series of tests have been carried out to evaluate the effects of the injection rate and timing on bsfc, NOx, and PM emissions in a heavy-duty diesel engine with TICS FIE system. Injection line pressure, cylinder pressure, NOx and smoke were measured with various injection times and injection rates. The injection rate was altered at a fixed injection timing, which could be realized either by changing the TICS setting time or by using different cam profiles. The injection time was varied by using TICS timing control function at a given setting time. A parametric study of the injection rate in in-line pump system was tried to correlate injection rate variations with combustion characteristics and emission. Two parameters, the injection pressure rising rate and the initially injected fuel quantity were introduced to characterize fuel injection.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tumble Flow on Engine Performance and Flame Propagation

In this study, single cylinder engines with different tumble ratio were made to show the effects of tumble motion on engine performance and flame propagation. Particle tracking velocimetry technique by using chopper was adopted to examine the in-cylinder flow field for the full understanding of tumble motion. And equivalent angular speed of tumble vortex was obtained from each crank angle and compared with tumble ratio derived from the steady state flow rig test. Flame propagation speed were obtained with the gasket ionization probe and the piston ionization probe. And the combustion pressure in cylinder was measured to analyze the combustion characteristics. In case of high tumble engine, BSFC and BSHC were decreased and BSNOx was increased at part load test, BMEP and combustion peak pressure was increased at full load test. Also, flame propagation characteristics could be understood by use of piston ionization probe.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Behavior on Combustion Characteristics of Spark Ignition Engines

The purpose of this paper is to closely examine the influence of the behavior of fuel mixture in the intake manifold on combustion characteristics, performances of engine output and exhaust emission by using a 4-stroke spark ignition engine. In case of removing the liquid film fuel flowing on the wall of the intake manifold and of not removing it, the values of combustion characteristics such as the heat release delay, the combustion delay, the rate of heat release, the burned mass fraction and the maximum combustion pressure were obtained from the analysis of pressure indicator diagram. And then, the values of engine performance and concentration of exhaust gas were obtained.
Technical Paper

The Development and Performance Simulation of Polychloroprene High Temperature Bush Type Engine Mount

In recent years, high performance engines and the reduction in engine room due to aerodynamic styling has caused increases in engine room temperature. Because of this increasing temperature, the conventional natural rubber engine mount is now at the marginal point on its performance and durability. Several heat resistant materials have been considered for engine mount applications because of this reason. Polychloroprene rubber could be a strong candidate for engine mount application due to its balance of heat resistance, dynamic properties, and fatigue life. This paper will discuss the development of the technology, property characteristics and part performance simulations on the HYUNDAI BUSH TYPE COMPLEX ENGINE MOUNT (for 2.0L DOHC ENGINE). This type of mount requires higher creep resistance and fatigue life than those of other designs, such as block or simple shear type mounts. Early evaluations of polychloroprene mounts have shown some deficiencies in creep resistance.
Technical Paper

The Design and Development of the Hyundai Alpha Engine

Main design features and some of the development work carried out on the first new engines to be produced in-house by Hyundai Motor Co. are described. The Alpha family of multi-valve, four cylinder engines comprises 1.3 and 1.5L naturally aspirated units and a 1.5L turbocharged version. Modern features are incorporated in the engines in order to provide higher performance and good fuel economy with excellent durability at reasonable cost. Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC) was established in 1967 and, in the following year, commenced production of passenger cars for the domestic market, using CKD components supplied by Ford of Europe. In 1974 the Pony saloon car entered production; this used mainly locally produced components but most of the major items, including the power train - engine and gearbox - were manufactured under the license from Mitsubishi Motors.
Technical Paper

The Characteristics of Carbon Deposit Formation in Piston Top Ring Groove of Gasoline and Diesel Engine

In order to investigate the characteristics of top ring groove deposit formation in gasoline and diesel engine, engine test and simulation test were performed. From component analysis of used oils sampled from actual running engines, oxidation and nitration for gasoline engine and soot content for diesel engine were selected as main parameters for evaluating oil degradation. In gasoline engine, deposit formation increases linearly with oxidation and nitration, and especially, oil oxidation is a dominant factor on the deposit formation rather than nitration. And, deposit formation increases gradually in low temperature ranges below 260°C even if oils are highly oxidized, but it increases rapidly if piston top ring groove temperature is above 260°C. In diesel engine, deposit formation is highly related to soot content in lubricating oils.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 1, Engine Simulation

As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Promising technologies under consideration are: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled exhaust gas recirculation (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency improving options are well-understood individually, in this study we directly compare them to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). For this purpose we undertake a comprehensive simulation of the above technology options using a GT-Power model of the engine with a kinetics based knock combustion sub-model to optimize the fuel efficiency, taking into account the total in-cylinder dilution effects, due to internal and external EGR, on the combustion.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.