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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

1994-03-01
940995
The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tempering on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties in Gas-Carburized Cr-Mo Gear Steel

1997-02-24
970709
The effects of tempering on carburized Cr-Mo gear steel were investigated through mechanical and fatigue tests. Specimens were carburized at 900°C for 180 minutes, and then oil quenched at 150°C for 10 minutes of holding time and cooled to room temperature. The subsequent tempering process was performed to 160°C for 90 minutes. Surface hardness and residual compressive stress were decreased by tempering treatment, whereas tensile strength, yield strength and impact energy were increased. Bending fatigue endurance limits for both tempered and untempered specimens were same as 779MPa. The strength of roller contact fatigue is also not greatly influenced by tempering treatment. Thermal distortion for carburized transfer driven gear before and after tempering exhibited a similar distribution. Microstructural changes during tempering were also discussed.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Cooled External EGR, Water Injection, Miller Valve Events and Cylinder Deactivation for the Improvement of Fuel Economy on a Turbocharged-GDI Engine; Part 2, Engine Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-0242
As CO2 legislation tightens, the next generation of turbocharged gasoline engines must meet stricter emissions targets combined with increased fuel efficiency standards. Recent studies have shown that the following technologies offer significant improvements to the efficiency of turbocharged GDI engines: Miller Cycle via late intake valve closing (LIVC), low pressure loop cooled EGR (LPL EGR), port water injection (PWI), and cylinder deactivation (CDA). While these efficiency-improving technologies are individually well-understood, in this study we directly compare these technologies to each other on the same engine at a range of operating conditions and over a range of compression ratios (CR). The technologies tested are applied to a boosted and direct injected (DI) gasoline engine and evaluated both individually and combined.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-1529
This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0390
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)

1993-03-01
930330
This paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV). The work on FFV has been conducted to evaluate its potential as an alternative to the conventional gasoline vehicle. Hyundai FFV described here can operate on M85, gasoline, or any of their combinations, in which the methanol concentration is measured by an electrostatic type fuel sensor. For that operation, a special FFV ECU has been developed and incorporated in the FFV. The characteristics affecting FFV operation, such as FFV ECU control strategy and injector flow rate, have been investigated and optimized by experiment. Various development tests have been performed in view of engine performance, durability, cold startability, and exhaust emissions reduction. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system being consisted of manifold type catalytic converter(MCC) and secondary air injection system has shown good emission reduction performance including formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

Powertrain-related vehicle sound development

2000-06-12
2000-05-0301
This paper reflects an efficient and comprehensive approach for vehicle sound optimization integrated into the entire development process. It shows the benefits of early consideration of typical vehicle NVH features and of intensive interaction of P/T and vehicle responsibilities. The process presented here considers the typical restriction that acoustically representative prototypes of engines and vehicles are not available simultaneously at the early development phase. For process optimization at this stage, a method for vehicle interior noise estimation is developed, which bases on measurements from the P/T test bench only, while the vehicle transfer behavior for airborne and structure-borne noise is assumed to be similar to a favorable existing vehicle. This method enables to start with the pre- optimization of the pure P/T and its components by focusing on such approaches which are mainly relevant for the vehicle interior noise.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

1993-11-01
931986
Recently, flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) has been drawn great attention because of its response for immediate use as alternative fueled one. Hyundai FFV can be operated on arbitrary fuel mixtures between gasoline and M85 with the specially programmed electronic control unit (ECU) which can determine optimized fueling quantity and ignition timing as the methanol content by the signal from electrostatic type fuel sensor. In this paper, the results of various tests including engine performance, cold startability, durability and exhaust emission reduction have been described. Full load, cold mode durability tests and field trials have been carried out with some material changes and surface treatments in the lubricating parts and fuel system. But, more work on its durability improvement is still required.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Packing Design for Manifold Catalytic Converter Application

1996-02-01
960561
A preconverter is an essential component of the new vehicle exhaust system for the achievement of tightened emission standards. To meet those standards, the Manifold Catalytic Converter (MCC) system has been developed in the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC). Unfortunately, the conventional MCC is no longer a suitable design for the exhaust gas treatment of the newly developed high performance engine since it cannot withstand the engine's exhaust temperature, vibration, pressure pulsation, and many other severe conditions. This paper is focused on a failure-mode analysis and new packing designs for the MCC application through a series of durability tests.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Electrically Heated Catalyst for Emission Purification Efficiency

1996-02-01
960350
It is well known that the EHC (Electrically Heated Catalyst) is very effective for the reduction of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions. To optimize EHC applications for LEVI (Low Emission Vehicle) and ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, the effect of heating and secondary air injection on the emission purification efficiency in FTP (Federal Test Procedure) were evaluated with three different EHC system configurations. The exhaust manifold location EHC system in which the EHC with a light-off catalyst is installed near the exhaust manifold, yields 0.038g/mile of THC (Total Hydrocarbon emissions) when the test was performed according to the FFP with an engine-aged condition equivalent to 50,000miles. Therefore, the ULEV standards could be achieved through the system. A new battery system for the EHC and a single battery system for vehicle application were evaluated. Evaluation of the Ni-MH battery for EHC system is included.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Ventilated Brake Disc Connected to a Wheel

2018-10-05
2018-01-1878
The role of a brake disc is to convert the kinetic energy of automobiles into thermal energy caused by friction between the brake pads and disc surfaces. The braking performance of an overheated disc is decreased due to hot judder and fade. Hence, the cooling technology of a brake disc is one of the most important issues related to automobile safety. In the present study, the fluid flow and heat transfer analysis of a ventilated brake disc are conducted numerically. Some geometries of automotive parts such as bearings, hubs and wheels are considered in this study. The commercial code ANSYS CFX is used to simulate the fluid flow and the conjugate heat transfer which includes conduction and convection. To evaluate the cooling performance in each case, the results, including the flow patterns of cooling air inside the wheel and the heat transfer coefficient distribution at the disc surfaces, were investigated and compared for various disc-hub combinations.
Technical Paper

Muffler Sound Development Using Analysis of Acoustic Source of Engine Exhaust System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0026
In order to achieve the proper automobile interior sound, the tailpipe noise of the exhaust system must be considered as a main contributor. This paper describes a study of the achievement of dynamic sound quality through exhaust system design. Firstly, we determined the vehicle's interior sound quality and established a target sound using a subjective assessment of 10 benchmark vehicles. The exhaust noise target is determined by means of transfer path analysis focusing on the noise source and how it's impacted by the muffler design. The exhaust system is commonly modeled as a combination of source strength and impedance. We obtained the source character by the wave decomposition method using two microphones and six loads ultimately leading to an optimized design of the inner muffler structure. Based on this study, we achieved dynamic interior sound and improved exhaust system performance.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Pulse Width Modulation Pressure Control System for Automatic Transmission

2002-03-04
2002-01-1257
Generally, the widely used hydraulic control system in automatic transmissions is pulse width modulation (PWM) type. It consists in a PWM solenoid valve and a reducing type second stage valve, so called pressure control valve (PCV), to amplify pressure or flow rate. In this study, the mathematical models of the PWM solenoid valve and the PCV with moderate complexity are proposed. Then, their behavior is analyzed from the steady state characteristics. Finally, we find that there are good matches between the dynamic simulation results and the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

MEMS Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement of Exhaust Gas

2013-03-25
2013-01-0011
To meet Euro6 regulation particulate matter MEMS sensor is suggested. This sensor detects induced charges by PM. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, surface area of the sensor is increased by MEMS process. Sensor is made by low resistive silicon. Total size is 4.3 mm x 59.4 mm x 1 mm and size of sensor part is 4.3 mm x 13 mm. On the backside of the sensor, Pt heater is fabricated to remove piled PM on sensor part. After sensor part, charge amplifier is used to measure the induced charge of the sensor. From FFT of sensor signal, it can sense 5.46 mg/m₃ of PM. In this paper, MEMS devices for exhaust system monitoring of automobiles are investigated. PM emitted from diesel engine is charged particle. Charge-induced-type PM sensor we designed can measure by real time and it doesn't need particle collection apparatus
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Estimation Algorithm for Variable Valve Lift (VVL) Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0785
In a multi-cylinder variable valve lift (VVL) engine, in spite of its high efficiency and low emission performance, operation of the variable valve lift brings about not only variation of the air-fuel ratio at the exhaust manifold, but also individual cylinder air-fuel ratio maldistribution. In this study, in order to reduce the air-fuel ratio variation and maldistribution, we propose an individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation algorithm for individual cylinder air-fuel ratio control. For the purpose of the individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation, air charging dynamics are modeled according to valve lift conditions. In addition, based on the air charging model, individual cylinder air-fuel ratios are estimated by multi-rate sampling from single universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor located on the exhaust manifold. Estimation results are validated with a one-dimensional engine simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Flow Modeling for the Branched Intake Manifold Engine

1996-02-01
960079
A flow model is a convenient tool for developing the engine intake system. Two flow models for the branched engine intake were developed by the finite difference method and the method of characteristics. The results from the models were compared with the experimental data and the appropriate boundary conditions were established for each model. Modeling the flow at the intake and exhaust valves with a cylinder and at the pipe branches were the most critical part of the flow models affecting the accuracy of the solutions. From two models, it was found that the finite difference model was simpler than the characteristic model in formulation with the better accuracy. The effects of valve timings and intake geometry were studied by the flow models to design the optimum intake system.
Technical Paper

Flow Analysis and Catalytic Characteristics for the Various Catalyst Cell Shapes

1999-05-03
1999-01-1541
The shape of unit cell of catalytic converter has great influence on the conversion efficiency and pressure drop characteristics. Therefore, the properties of design parameters of catalyst monolith were analyzed and the parameters of various cell shapes of catalyst were compared. Also, the numerical study of a three dimensional compressible flow in a Close-coupled Catalyst Converter (CCC) system was performed to investigate the flow characteristics and the flow distribution of exhaust gases. Unsteady flow analysis shows that severe interferences of each pulsating exhaust gas flow as well as geometric factors (junction, mixing pipe, cell shape etc.) influence greatly on the flow uniformity and flow characteristic in substrate. The results can be applied for the catalytic converter design.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation and Knock Detection Using an Optical Fiber Technique in a Spark-Ignition Engine

1993-11-01
931906
In this research, an optical system for the detection of the flame propagation under the non-knocking and knocking conditions is developed and applied to a mass produced four cylinder SI engine. The normal flames are measured and analyzed under the steady state operating conditions at various engine speeds. For knocking cycles, the flame front propagations before and after knock occurrence are simultaneously taken with cylinder pressure data. In non-knocking and knocking cycles, flame propagation shows cycle-by-cycle variations, which are quite severe especially in the knocking cycles. The normal flame propagations are analyzed at various engine speeds, and show that the flame front on the exhaust valve side becomes faster as the engine speed increases. According to the statistical analysis, knock occurence location and flame propagation process after knock can be categorized into five different types.
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