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Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).
Technical Paper

Scavenger free three-way catalyst with low hydrogen sulfide emission

This study suggests new types of catalysts that show low hydrogen sulfide emission without scavenger such as NiO. Hydrogen sulfide can be reduced by changing the physicochemical properties of washcoat components. Synthesized gas activity tests were performed to investigate the effect of modified washcoat on hydrogen sulfide formation and catalytic activity. BET surface area tests, X- ray diffraction tests, and gas chromatography tests were also carried out to examine the characteristics of catalysts. Preparation methods for catalysts were focused on minimizing the adsorption of sulfur species on catalysts. The first approach is heat treatment of cerium oxide to reduce adsorption sites for sulfur compounds. But this leads to deterioration of CO and NOx conversion efficiencies. The second one is adding new types of promoters that increase thermal durability and dynamic oxygen storing function of cerium oxide.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Manufacturing and Evaluation Technology for the Light Weight Brake Disc Composed of Hybrid Type Material

Reducing unsprung mass of the car is a representative method to enhance the ride & handling performance and fuel efficiency. In this study, brake disc weight is reduced 15∼20% using a hybrid type material. The basis for this study is the separation of the friction surface and HAT(mounting part). Aluminum material is applied in the HAT for a light weight effect. Gray iron is applied in the friction surface section to maintain braking performance. Two types of joining between aluminum and cast iron are developed. One is the aluminum casting method utilizing a gray iron insert and the other is a bolted assembly method. Detailed structure, process and material are optimized using try-out & dynamometer experiments. The Reliability of this development is proved through durability (dynamometer and vehicle) testing.
Technical Paper

Effect of Normalized Microstructure in Alloy Steel on the Performance of Planetary Gear Set of Automatic Transmission

The banded microstructure of pearlite and ferrite in normalized alloy steel is susceptible to thermal distortion during carburizing process due to its unidirectional orientation parallel to rolling direction. The planetary gears with material of banded microstructure have been experienced in high thermal distortion during carburizing and quenching process and result in uneven surface hardness and effective case depth at the inside of pinion gear after honing. These defects played failure initiation site roles in durability test during development of new automatic transmission. The galling between the contacting components in severe lubricating system was the main failure mechanism. Double normalizing at 920 °C was designed to resolve the banded microstructure of normalized alloy steel. The microstructure and grain size of the double heated steel became equiaxed and fine due to homogenizing and recrystallization through double heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Development of Supercarburized Tappet Shim to Improve Fuel Economy

A newly developed surface hardening process, supercarburizing, has been developed for the application of tappet shim to improve fuel economy. Supercarburizing has been introduced to increase resistance of wear and pitting performance and was designed to have supersaturated carbon surface layer and further to have spheroidized carbide morphology. In this presentation, the process variables, such as surface microstructure, morphology and distribution of carbide precipitation, will be discussed via the results of friction loss tests. At an entire speed range investigated, the application of supercarburized tappet shim improved fuel economy with 25∼30% in terms of valve train itself and with 4∼5% concerning on the gross engine performance. The fuel economy analysis showed that the improved surface hardening process of tappet shim increased fuel economy of vehicle about 1.4∼3.6%.
Technical Paper

A Method to Analyze “The Imaginary Kingpin Axis” in Multi-Link Type Suspension Systems

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method to analyze the imaginary kingpin axis in multi-link type suspension mechanisms by using the Displacement Matrix method, the instantaneous screw axis theory, and the nonlinear equation solver “DESIGN”.[1][2] The mathematical logic and a Kinematic theory used in this method have been developed a long time ago. But the key point of this method is how accurate and effective we can get the information on design parameters related to the imaginary kingpin axis existing only in the multi-link type suspension, especially in the initial stage of suspension geometry design.