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Technical Paper

Weight Reduction and Noise Refinement of the Hyundai 1.5 Liter Powertrain

The weight reduction and noise refinement of powertrain has been major concern in automotive industry although they are known as self trade-off. This paper presents various methods to deal with those problems for new Hyundai 1.5 liter powertrain. It was possible to reduce the weight of powertrain by using plastic for both headcover and intake manifold, aluminum for crankshaft damper pulley and stainless steel for exhaust manifold and by reducing the general thickness of cylinder block On the other hand, the noise refinement of vibration in the powertrain was made by optimizing the engine structure and by adapting the hydraulic lash adjuster valve train system, which was proved to be effective in mechanical noise of engine.
Technical Paper

The Study of the Structure for the Head Protection on Front Pillar in Crash or Rollover of the Vehicle

In order to meet FMVSS 201 (U) requirements, the upper vehicle interior structures with trim in a vehicle need to be properly designed to minimize injuries when head impacts these components. This paper presents a study of countermeasures in pillars using FEA approach by considering some design factors. Optimal designs are then selected for interior head impact protection based on CAE analysis using LS-DYNA non-linear finite element code.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Various Design Factors for Invisible Passenger-side Airbag Door Opening

Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door systems must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. A predictive Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was carried out to calculate the effects of varying design factors (the length and thickness of kink-hinge, tear-line type and temperature) on the IPAB-door opening. The impact performance of plastic parts was considered, because the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials are strongly dependent on strain rate.
Technical Paper

Study on Optimization for LNT+SCR System of Diesel Vehicle to Comply with the LEV3 Regulations

This paper describes how to meet LEVII ULEV70 emission standards and minimize fuel consumption with the combined NOx after-treatment (LNT+SCR) system for diesel vehicles. Through analysis of LNT's functionality and characteristics in a LNT+SCR combined after-treatment system, allowed a new control strategy to be established, different from the existing LNT-only system. In the 200°C or higher condition where SCR can provide the most stable NOx conversion efficiency, rich regeneration of LNT was optimized to minimize LNT deterioration and fuel consumption. Optimized mapping between rapid heat up strategy and raw NOx reduction maximized LNT's NOx conversion efficiency during the intervals when it is not possible for SCR to purify NOx This study used bench aged catalysts which were equivalent to 150K full useful life.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)

This paper describes Hyundai's research and development work on a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV). The work on FFV has been conducted to evaluate its potential as an alternative to the conventional gasoline vehicle. Hyundai FFV described here can operate on M85, gasoline, or any of their combinations, in which the methanol concentration is measured by an electrostatic type fuel sensor. For that operation, a special FFV ECU has been developed and incorporated in the FFV. The characteristics affecting FFV operation, such as FFV ECU control strategy and injector flow rate, have been investigated and optimized by experiment. Various development tests have been performed in view of engine performance, durability, cold startability, and exhaust emissions reduction. The exhaust gas aftertreatment system being consisted of manifold type catalytic converter(MCC) and secondary air injection system has shown good emission reduction performance including formaldehyde emission.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Powertrain Control Strategy for Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV), which employs a planetary gear set to combine one internal combustion engine(ICE) and two electric motors(EMs), can take advantages of both series and parallel hybrid system. The efficient powertrain operating point of the system can be obtained by the instantaneous optimization of equivalent fuel consumption. However, heavy computational requirements and variable constraints of the optimization process make it difficult to build real-time control strategy. To overcome the difficulty, this study suggests the control strategy which divides the optimization process into 2 stages. In the first stage, a target of charge/discharge power is determined based on equivalent fuel consumption, then in the second stage, an engine operating point is determined taking power transfer efficiency into account.
Technical Paper

Ratio Control of Metal Belt CVT

A fuzzy logic ratio control algorithm for a metal belt CVT is suggested considering the on-off characteristics of the ratio control valve and the nonlinear characteristics of the CVT shift dynamics. In the fuzzy logic, variable computation time for the error of the ratio and the rate of the error is suggested depending on the velocity of the rate of the CVT ratio. Experimental results show that a desired speed ratio can be achieved at a steady state by the fuzzy logic in spite of the fluctuating primary pressure. In addition, it was found that a faster response and better robustness can be obtained when compared with those of the PID control. It is expected that the ratio control algorithm suggested in this study can be implemented in a prototype CVT.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Hyundai Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

Recently, flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) has been drawn great attention because of its response for immediate use as alternative fueled one. Hyundai FFV can be operated on arbitrary fuel mixtures between gasoline and M85 with the specially programmed electronic control unit (ECU) which can determine optimized fueling quantity and ignition timing as the methanol content by the signal from electrostatic type fuel sensor. In this paper, the results of various tests including engine performance, cold startability, durability and exhaust emission reduction have been described. Full load, cold mode durability tests and field trials have been carried out with some material changes and surface treatments in the lubricating parts and fuel system. But, more work on its durability improvement is still required.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Packing Design for Manifold Catalytic Converter Application

A preconverter is an essential component of the new vehicle exhaust system for the achievement of tightened emission standards. To meet those standards, the Manifold Catalytic Converter (MCC) system has been developed in the Hyundai Motor Company (HMC). Unfortunately, the conventional MCC is no longer a suitable design for the exhaust gas treatment of the newly developed high performance engine since it cannot withstand the engine's exhaust temperature, vibration, pressure pulsation, and many other severe conditions. This paper is focused on a failure-mode analysis and new packing designs for the MCC application through a series of durability tests.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Electrically Heated Catalyst for Emission Purification Efficiency

It is well known that the EHC (Electrically Heated Catalyst) is very effective for the reduction of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions. To optimize EHC applications for LEVI (Low Emission Vehicle) and ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) standards, the effect of heating and secondary air injection on the emission purification efficiency in FTP (Federal Test Procedure) were evaluated with three different EHC system configurations. The exhaust manifold location EHC system in which the EHC with a light-off catalyst is installed near the exhaust manifold, yields 0.038g/mile of THC (Total Hydrocarbon emissions) when the test was performed according to the FFP with an engine-aged condition equivalent to 50,000miles. Therefore, the ULEV standards could be achieved through the system. A new battery system for the EHC and a single battery system for vehicle application were evaluated. Evaluation of the Ni-MH battery for EHC system is included.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Cooling Air Duct and Dust Cover Shape for Brake Disc Best Cooling Performance

Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Failure of doing this properly causes temperature rise in the brake disc which result in the brake fade, disc distortion, brake judder, etc. A cooling-air-duct was proposed as a solution to prevent these from happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments optimized parameters such as direction, location, shapes and the size of the duct for the cooling-air-duct installation in real cars. We installed the duct extended from a front bumper to a rear wheel guard. Experimental parameters were compared with theoretical analysis using the impinging jet analysis. The heat transfer coefficients were determined by using the finite elements method (FEM). We found that our experimental data is supportive of theoretical analysis. We believe that our results should serve an useful guideline for designing the cooling-air-duct for braking system.
Technical Paper

Muffler Sound Development Using Analysis of Acoustic Source of Engine Exhaust System

In order to achieve the proper automobile interior sound, the tailpipe noise of the exhaust system must be considered as a main contributor. This paper describes a study of the achievement of dynamic sound quality through exhaust system design. Firstly, we determined the vehicle's interior sound quality and established a target sound using a subjective assessment of 10 benchmark vehicles. The exhaust noise target is determined by means of transfer path analysis focusing on the noise source and how it's impacted by the muffler design. The exhaust system is commonly modeled as a combination of source strength and impedance. We obtained the source character by the wave decomposition method using two microphones and six loads ultimately leading to an optimized design of the inner muffler structure. Based on this study, we achieved dynamic interior sound and improved exhaust system performance.
Technical Paper

Model Based Optimization of Supervisory Control Parameters for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Supervisory control strategy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) provides target powers and operating points of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. To promise efficient driving of the HEV, it is needed to find the proper values of control parameters which are used in the strategy. However, it is very difficult to find the optimal values of the parameters by doing experimental tests, since there are plural parameters which have dependent relationship between each other. Furthermore variation of the test results makes it difficult to extract the effect of a specific parameter change. In this study, a model based parameter optimization method is introduced. A vehicle simulation model having the most of dynamics related to fuel consumption was developed and validated with various experimental data from real vehicles. And then, the supervisory control logic including the control parameters was connected to the vehicle model.
Technical Paper

MEMS Sensor for Particulate Matter Measurement of Exhaust Gas

To meet Euro6 regulation particulate matter MEMS sensor is suggested. This sensor detects induced charges by PM. To increase sensitivity of the sensor, surface area of the sensor is increased by MEMS process. Sensor is made by low resistive silicon. Total size is 4.3 mm x 59.4 mm x 1 mm and size of sensor part is 4.3 mm x 13 mm. On the backside of the sensor, Pt heater is fabricated to remove piled PM on sensor part. After sensor part, charge amplifier is used to measure the induced charge of the sensor. From FFT of sensor signal, it can sense 5.46 mg/m₃ of PM. In this paper, MEMS devices for exhaust system monitoring of automobiles are investigated. PM emitted from diesel engine is charged particle. Charge-induced-type PM sensor we designed can measure by real time and it doesn't need particle collection apparatus
Technical Paper

Individual Cylinder Air-Fuel Ratio Estimation Algorithm for Variable Valve Lift (VVL) Engines

In a multi-cylinder variable valve lift (VVL) engine, in spite of its high efficiency and low emission performance, operation of the variable valve lift brings about not only variation of the air-fuel ratio at the exhaust manifold, but also individual cylinder air-fuel ratio maldistribution. In this study, in order to reduce the air-fuel ratio variation and maldistribution, we propose an individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation algorithm for individual cylinder air-fuel ratio control. For the purpose of the individual cylinder air-fuel ratio estimation, air charging dynamics are modeled according to valve lift conditions. In addition, based on the air charging model, individual cylinder air-fuel ratios are estimated by multi-rate sampling from single universal exhaust gas oxygen (UEGO) sensor located on the exhaust manifold. Estimation results are validated with a one-dimensional engine simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Flow Modeling for the Branched Intake Manifold Engine

A flow model is a convenient tool for developing the engine intake system. Two flow models for the branched engine intake were developed by the finite difference method and the method of characteristics. The results from the models were compared with the experimental data and the appropriate boundary conditions were established for each model. Modeling the flow at the intake and exhaust valves with a cylinder and at the pipe branches were the most critical part of the flow models affecting the accuracy of the solutions. From two models, it was found that the finite difference model was simpler than the characteristic model in formulation with the better accuracy. The effects of valve timings and intake geometry were studied by the flow models to design the optimum intake system.
Technical Paper

Flow Analysis and Catalytic Characteristics for the Various Catalyst Cell Shapes

The shape of unit cell of catalytic converter has great influence on the conversion efficiency and pressure drop characteristics. Therefore, the properties of design parameters of catalyst monolith were analyzed and the parameters of various cell shapes of catalyst were compared. Also, the numerical study of a three dimensional compressible flow in a Close-coupled Catalyst Converter (CCC) system was performed to investigate the flow characteristics and the flow distribution of exhaust gases. Unsteady flow analysis shows that severe interferences of each pulsating exhaust gas flow as well as geometric factors (junction, mixing pipe, cell shape etc.) influence greatly on the flow uniformity and flow characteristic in substrate. The results can be applied for the catalytic converter design.
Technical Paper

Flame Propagation and Knock Detection Using an Optical Fiber Technique in a Spark-Ignition Engine

In this research, an optical system for the detection of the flame propagation under the non-knocking and knocking conditions is developed and applied to a mass produced four cylinder SI engine. The normal flames are measured and analyzed under the steady state operating conditions at various engine speeds. For knocking cycles, the flame front propagations before and after knock occurrence are simultaneously taken with cylinder pressure data. In non-knocking and knocking cycles, flame propagation shows cycle-by-cycle variations, which are quite severe especially in the knocking cycles. The normal flame propagations are analyzed at various engine speeds, and show that the flame front on the exhaust valve side becomes faster as the engine speed increases. According to the statistical analysis, knock occurence location and flame propagation process after knock can be categorized into five different types.
Technical Paper

Ethanol Flex Fuel system with Delphi Heated injector application

After the second worldwide oil crisis, Brazil put in place by 1975 a strategic plan to stimulate the usage of ethanol (from sugar cane), to be mixed to the gasoline or to be sold as 100% ethanol fuel (known as E100). To enable an engine to operate with both gasoline and ethanol (and their mixtures), by 2003 the “Flex Fuel” technology was implemented. By 2012 calendar year, from a total of about 3.8 million vehicles sold in the Brazilian market, 91% offered the “Flex Fuel” technology, and great majority used a gasoline sub-tank to assist on cold starts (typically below 15°C, where more than 85% of ethanol is present in fuel tank). The gasoline sub-tank system suffers from issues such as gasoline deterioration, crash-worthiness and user inconvenience such as bad drivability during engine warm up phase. This paper presents fuel injector technologies capable of rapidly electrically heating the ethanol fuel for the Brazilian transportation market.
Technical Paper

Elasto-Plastic Deformation of a Tied-Down Passenger Car Body

Tie down loading effect on the car body has been analyzed for various factors. Excessive force during transportation causes local failure or dent of a car body. In order to prevent local failure and to increase the tie down strength effectively, nonlinear finite element analysis was performed considering large deformation, rotation and elasto-plastic deformation. Location of dent was predicted which was the same as reported and it was found that there are two ways to increase the tie down strength: one is the application of the tie down load at the side of fuel inlet and the other is the reinforcement of rear floor side member. This paper demonstrates the displacement and the stress distributions for various locations and directions of tie down loading and the degrees of reinforcement of rear floor side member.