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Technical Paper

Vehicle Cabin Air Quality with Fractional Air Recirculation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1494
A fractional recirculation of cabin air was proposed and studied to improve cabin air quality by reducing cabin particle concentrations. Vehicle tests were run with differing number of passengers (1, 2, 3, and 4), four fan speed settings and at 20, 40, and 70 mph. A manual control was installed for the recirculation flap door so different ratios of fresh air to recirculated air could be used. Full recirculation is the most efficient setting in terms of thermal management and particle concentration reduction, but this causes elevated CO₂ levels in the cabin. The study demonstrated cabin CO₂ concentrations could be controlled below a target level of 2000 ppm at various driving conditions and fan speeds with more than 85% of recirculation. The proposed fractional air recirculation method is a simple yet innovative way of improving cabin air quality. Some energy saving is also expected, especially with the air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Understanding 3 Cylinder CVT Vehicle for Improving Fuel Economy and Reducing Noise and Vibration

2016-04-05
2016-01-1294
This study presents the NVH characteristics of a passenger vehicle with a three-cylinder engine and a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) and an optimization procedure to achieve balance between fuel economy and NVH. The goal of this study is to improve fuel economy by extending the lock-up area of the damper clutch at low vehicle speed and to minimize booming noise and body vibration caused by the direct connection of the engine and transmission. Resonance characteristics of the chassis systems and driveline have been studied and optimized by the experiment. NVH behavior of the vehicle body structure is investigated and modifications for refinement of booming and body vibration are proposed by simulation using MSC NASTRAN. Calibration parameters for CVT control are optimized for fuel economy and NVH. As a result, the lock-up clutch area has been extended by 300RPM and the fuel economy has been improved by about 1%, while the NVH characteristics of the vehicle satisfy the targets.
Technical Paper

Tumble Flow Measurements Using Three Different Methods and its Effects on Fuel Economy and Emissions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3345
In-cylinder flows such as tumble and swirl have an important role on the engine combustion efficiencies and emission formations. In particular, the tumble flow which is dominant in current high performance gasoline engines has an important effect on the fuel consumptions and exhaust emissions under part load conditions. Therefore, it is important to understand the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance and optimize the tumble ratio for better fuel economy and exhaust emissions. First step in optimizing a tumble flow is to measure a tumble ratio accurately. In this research the tumble ratio was measured, compared, and correlated using three different measurement methods: steady flow rig, 2-Dimensional PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), and 3-Dimensional PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry). Engine dynamometer test was also conducted to find out the effect of the tumble ratio on the part load performance.
Technical Paper

The Unified Relationship between Torque and Gear Ratio and Its Application in Multi-Step Automatic Transmissions

2016-04-05
2016-01-1098
The market demands for CO2 reduction and fuel economy have led to a variety of new gear set concepts of automatic transmissions with 4 planetary gear sets and 6 shift elements in recent years. Understanding the relationship between the torque of clutch and brake and gear ratio in the design stage is very important to assess new gear set concepts and to set up the control strategy for enhancing shift quality and to reduce the heat generation of clutch and brake. In this paper, a new systematic approach is used to unify the relationship between torque and gear ratio during the gear shift for all multi-step planetary automatic transmissions. This study describes the unified concept model with a lumped inertia regardless of the specific transmission layout and derives the principal unified relationship equations using torque and energy analysis, which prove that the sum of brake torque is always gear ratio -1 in every in-gear.
Technical Paper

The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-1292
Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

The CAE Analysis of a Cylinder Head Water Jacket Design for Engine Cooling Optimization

2018-04-03
2018-01-1459
Hyundai's new engine is developed which optimize the cooling efficiency for knocking improvement and friction reduction. The cooling concepts for this purpose are 1) equalizing the temperature among cylinders by flow optimization, 2) cooling the required area intensively, 3) adopting ‘active flow control’ and 4) enlarging fuel economy at high speed range. In order to realize the cooling concept, 1) cross-flow, 2) compact water jacket & exhaust cooling, 3) flow control valve and 4) cylinder head with integrated exhaust manifold are considered. Improvement of knocking and friction reduction by increased cooling water temperature makes fuel efficiency possible. On the other hand, in order to strengthen the cooling around the combustion chamber and to reduce the deviation among the combustion chamber of cylinders, it is required to design the head water jacket shape accordingly.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Motor Output Power Depending on Current Sensor Response in Eco-Friendly Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1222
The current sensor for motor control is one of the main components in inverters for eco-friendly vehicles. Recently, as the higher performance of torque control has become required, the current sensor measurement error and accuracy of motor controls have become more significant. Since the response time of the sensor affects the motor output power, the response delay of the sensor causes measurement errors of the current. Accordingly, the voltage vector changes, and a motor output power deviation occurs. In the case of the large response delay of the sensor, as motor speed increases, then difference between motoring and generating output power becomes larger and larger. This results in the deterioration of power performance in high-speed operation. The deviation of the voltage vector magnitude is the main cause of motor output power deviation and imbalance through the simulation.
Technical Paper

Study of Active Steering Algorithm Logic in EPS Systems by Detecting Vehicle Driving Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-1481
Conventional EPS (Electric Power Steering) systems are operated by one type of steering tuning map set by steering test drivers before being released to customers. That is, the steering efforts can't change in many different driving conditions such as road conditions (low mu, high mu and unpaved roads) or some specific driving conditions (sudden stopping, entering into EPS failure modes and full accelerating). Those conditions can't give drivers consistent steering efforts. This paper approached the new concept technology detecting those conditions by using vehicle and EPS sensors such as tire wheel speeds, vehicle speed, steering angle, steering torque, steering speed and so on. After detecting those conditions and judging what the best steering efforts for safe vehicle driving are, EPS systems automatically can be changed with the steering friction level and selection of steering optimized mapping on several conditions.
Technical Paper

Smart Engine Control Strategy for the Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Understanding the Unique Behavior of TWC

2019-03-25
2019-01-1406
The worldwide fuel economy compliance level has been tightening, at the same time, LEV-III/Euro-6d/China-6/BS-6 regulations for NMOG and NOx emissions are being introduced or already effective. Therefore, intensive research effort has been conducted in order to improve the fuel efficiency of passenger cars and reduce exhaust emission. In response to these demands, turbocharged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine is being introduced for gasoline vehicles in consideration of fuel efficiency improvement, high output and driving performance compared to naturally aspirated (NA) engine. However, due to its larger thermal mass from the turbo hardware in the exhaust, it suffers from the cold-start emission. The main hazardous gases emitted from gasoline vehicles are CO, HC and NOx, and a three-way catalyst (TWC) is installed for the purification of these harmful emissions.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Interior Booming Noise for a Small Diesel Engine Vehicle without Balance Shaft Module

2009-05-19
2009-01-2121
Applying BSM (Balance shaft module) is a very common and effective way to reduce the 2nd-order powertrain vibration which is caused by the ill-balanced inertia force due to the oscillating masses inside an engine. However, the adoption of a BSM can also produce undesirable things especially in cost, fuel economy, starting performance, and so on. Therefore, for small vehicles, in which case cost and weight are key factors at the development stage, it is often required to develop competitive NVH performance without the expensive apparatus like a BSM. In this paper, in order to develop interior noise and vibration of a 4-cylinder vehicle without a BSM, we analyzed the contribution of some transfer paths for powertrain vibration, and could reduce interior booming noise by tuning the dynamic characteristic of the engine mount which was one of the largest transfer paths.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Dual Loop EGR of a V6 3.0 Liter Diesel Engine for CO2 Reduction

2013-04-08
2013-01-0316
As the markets require a more environmentally friendly and high fuel consumption vehicle, we have to satisfy bilateral target. Though many new after-treatment techniques like LNT, SCR are investigated to meet both strong emission regulations and low fuel consumption, high cost of these techniques should be solved to adopt widely. This paper describes how to optimize the dual loop EGR as a tool to reduce CO₂ emission of a HSDI diesel engine in the passenger car application. Focus is not only on the optimization to obtain the maximum CO₂ reduction but also on how to assess and overcome various side effects. As a result of careful optimization, as much as 6% CO₂ reduction was achieved by introduction of low pressure EGR loop, maintaining the same boundary conditions as those with high pressure EGR loop only.
Technical Paper

Optimal Rear Suspension Design for the Improvement of Ride Comfort and Suspension Noise

2012-04-16
2012-01-0975
The purpose of this paper is to identify and reduce a knocking noise from a rear suspension. First, the characteristics of a knocking noise are analyzed experimentally in the frequency domain. It was found that the knocking noise of a passenger room and vibration at a lower arm, a subframe and a floor are strongly correlated. Second, the knocking noise sensitivity is strongly dependent on suspension dynamics characteristics. Moreover, the improvement of ride comfort and noise was achieved simultaneously based on simulation analysis, principle vehicle testing. A design parameter study shows that the trailing arm bush stiffness, shock absorber bump/rebound damping characteristics, floor stiffness and shock absorber insulator bushing are one of the most sensitive parameter to affect the suspension knocking noise. Finally, this paper shows how the suspension knocking noise and ride comfort can be improved considering handling performance.
Technical Paper

New “Energy Efficient” Balance Shaft / Oil Pump Module for Hyundai NF

2006-04-03
2006-01-0405
The Balance Shaft/Oil Pump Module for the new Hyundai Sonata NF Inline 4-cylinder engine family combines excellent NVH (noise, vibration and harshness, or “pleasibility”) and power consumption performance with minimized contribution to oil aeration. A two-stage drive ratio step-up and a balance shaft operating shape control strategy help minimize drive system noise emissions. Oil system noise emissions are minimized by dividing work between two gerotor pumps, and by the avoidance of cavitation at high speeds. Oil system performance benefits include high displacement at low speeds without attendant high power consumption or risk of cavitation at high speeds. A jet pump is used to efficiently recycle unused engine oil at high speeds, to both preserve energy and to resist cavitation, by boosting inlet pressure to the low speed flow-supplementing gerotor.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Vehicle Styling Optimization: All at Once Approach for Stiffness, Light-Weight and Ergonomics with Analytical Model Based on Compartment Decomposition

2003-03-03
2003-01-1330
The topology optimization made a great success in pure structural design in an actual industrial field. However, a lot of factors interact each other in a actual engineering field in highly complicated manner. The typical conceptual trade-off is that cost and performance, that is, since they are competing factors, one can't improve the specific system without consideration of interaction. The vehicle has lots of competing factors, especially like fuel economy and acceleration performance, mass and stiffness, roominess and cost, short front overhang and crash-worthiness and so on. In addition, they interact each other in a more complicated manner, that is, fuel economy has something to do with not only engine performance but also mass, roominess, stiffness, the length of overhang, trunk volume, etc. So, most of decision-makings have been made by management based on subjective knowledge and experience.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Injector Geometry at 250 MPa Injection in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0693
This paper investigated the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on fuel consumption and exhaust emission characteristics of a light-duty diesel engine with 250 MPa injection. The engine used for the experiment was the 0.4L single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The diesel fuel injection equipment was operated under 250MPa injection pressure. Three injectors with nozzle hole number of 8 to 10 were compared. As the nozzle number of the injector increased, the orifice diameter decreased 105 μm to 95 μm. The ignition delay was shorter with larger nozzle number and smaller orifice diameter. Without EGR, the particulate matter(PM) emission was lower with larger nozzle hole number. This result shows that the atomization of the fuel was improved with the smaller orifice diameter and the fuel spray area was kept same with larger nozzle number. However, the NOx-PM trade-offs of three injectors were similar at higher EGR rate and higher injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Impact of Hilly Road Profile on Optimal Energy Management Strategy for FCHEV with Various Battery Sizes

2013-10-14
2013-01-2542
This study investigates how hilly road profiles affect the optimal energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) with various battery sizes. First, a simplified FCHEV model is developed to describe power and energy flows throughout the powertrain and evaluate hydrogen consumption. Then, an optimal control problem is formulated to find the globally optimal energy management strategy of FCHEV over driving cycles with road elevation profile. In order to solve the optimal energy management problem of the FCHEV, Dynamic Programming, a dynamic optimization method, is used, and their results are analyzed to find out how hilly road conditions affect the optimal energy management strategies. The results show that the optimal energy management with a smaller battery tends to actively prepare (e.g. pre-charge/pre-discharge) for uphill/downhill roads in order not to violate the battery state of charge (SoC) bounds.
Technical Paper

Hyundai's New Generation 1.8L Gasoline Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0417
Hyundai has developed a new 1.8L gasoline engine replacing the previous engine for new compact/mid-size vehicles. This new engine will be installed on the debut of the new 2011 Hyundai Elantra in the North American market. The new engine has achieved high performance and improved fuel consumption by applying dual continuously variable valve timing and a two step variable induction system, which has enabled both low and mid speed torque as well as high speed power. In addition, reduced noise levels were realized by optimizing lower structure components and induction parts while also focusing on maintaining lighter weight. The engine meets U.S. SULEV and EURO 5 emission regulations. This paper presents an overview of the new 1.8L I4 gasoline engine (Nu Engine) as well as the features of each technology which embodies a well tuned engine with respect to high engine performance, lowered fuel consumption, reduced emissions and reduced NVH.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0629
A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

High Strength Light-Weight Valve Spring for Automotive Engine to Enhance Fuel Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0528
High strength oil-tempered wire was developed to apply to light-weight valve spring for automotive engine. By adding Mo, V, B and Ni, tensile strength increased by 20% compared to the conventional oil-tempered wire. Higher tensile strength of wire enabled a constant of valve spring to lower by reducing the size of spring. As a result, reduction of spring constant lowers the load of spring, thereby enhancing fuel efficiency.
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