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Technical Paper

Transient Performance of an HC LNC Aftertreatment System Applying Ethanol as the Reductant

2012-09-24
2012-01-1957
As emissions regulations around the world become more stringent, emerging markets are seeking alternative strategies that align with local infrastructures and conditions. A Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) is developed that achieves up to 60% NOx reduction with ULSD as its reductant and ≻95% with ethanol-based fuel reductants. Opportunities exist in countries that already have an ethanol-based fuel infrastructure, such as Brazil, improving emissions reduction penetration rates without costs and complexities of establishing urea infrastructures. The LNC performance competes with urea SCR NOx reduction, catalyst volume, reductant consumption, and cost, plus it is proven to be durable, passing stationary test cycles and adequately recovering from sulfur poisoning. Controls are developed and applied on a 7.2L engine, an inline 6-cylinder non-EGR turbo diesel.
Technical Paper

The Automated Shift Transmission (AST) - Possibilities and Limits in Production-Type Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0881
State-of-the-art powertrain concepts with automatic transmission must comply with increasingly stringent legislation on emissions and fuel consumption while fulfilling or surpassing customers' expectations as to driveability. In this respect, automated manual transmissions (AMT) and automated shift transmissions (AST) must compete with conventional automatic transmissions (AT) and continuously variable transmissions (CVT). In order to exploit the theoretical advantages of ASTs and put them into practice, complex ECU functions are needed to coordinate engine and transmission. Adaptive control, sophisticated clutch management and an intelligent shifting strategy allow shifting quality and shifting points to be simultaneously optimized to the effect that performance and comfort are increased while fuel consumption is reduced.
Technical Paper

Potential of an Innovative, Fully Variable Valvetrain

2004-03-08
2004-01-1393
Under the persistent pressure to further reduce fuel consumption worldwide, it is necessary to advance the processes that influence the efficiency of gasoline engines. In doing so, harnessing the entire potential of fully variable mechanical valve trains will involve targeting efforts on optimizing all design parameters. A new type of valve timing system is used to portray thermodynamic and mechanical as well as electronic aspects of developing fully variable mechanical valve timing and lift systems
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2214
Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Identification of a Gasoline Common Rail Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0196
The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0731
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assessment of Hybrid Powertrain Solutions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0070
This paper shows the main results of a research activity carried out in order to investigate the impact of different hybridization concepts on vehicle fuel economy during standard homologation cycles (NEDC, FTP75, US Highway, Artemis). Comparative analysis between a standard passenger vehicle and three different hybrid solutions based on the same vehicle platform is presented. The following parallel hybrid powertrain solutions were investigated: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) solution (three different levels of hybridization are investigated with respect to different Electric Motor Generator size and battery storage/power capacity), High Speed Flywheel (HSF) system described as a fully integrated mechanical (kinetic) hybrid solution based on the quite innovative approach, and hydraulic hybrid system (HHV). In order to perform a fare analysis between different hybrid systems, analysis is also carried out for equal system storage capacities.
Technical Paper

Model Based Exhaust Aftertreatment System Integration for the Development and Calibration of Ultra-Low Emission Concepts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1554
The development and calibration of exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) systems for the most diverse applications of diesel powertrain concepts requires EAT models, capable of performing concept analysis as well as control and OBD system development and calibration. On the concept side, the choice of an application-specific EAT layout from a wide technology selection is driven by a number of requirements and constraints. These include statutory requirements regarding emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG), technical constraints such as engine-out emissions and packaging, as well as economic parameters such as fuel consumption, and EAT system and system development costs. Fast and efficient execution of the analysis and multi-criteria system optimization can be done by integrating the detailed EAT models into a total system simulation.
Journal Article

Model Based E85 Cold Start Optimization for DISI Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1909
The startability of SI engines, especially of DISI engines, is the greatest challenge when using ethanol blended fuels. The development of a suitable injection strategy is therefore the main engineering target when developing an ethanol engine with direct injection. In order to limit the test efforts of such a program, a vaporization model has been created that provides the quantity of vaporized fuel depending on pressure and on start and end, respectively number and split relation of injections. This model takes account of the most relevant fuel properties such as density, surface tension and viscosity. It also considers the interaction of the spray with cylinder liner, cylinder head and piston. A comparison with test results shows the current status and the need for action of this simulation model.
Journal Article

Management of Energy Flow in Complex Commercial Vehicle Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0724
After the realization of very low exhaust gas emissions and corresponding OBD requirements to fulfill Euro VI and Tier 4 legislation, the focus in heavy-duty powertrain development is on the reduction of fuel consumption and thus CO₂ emissions again. Besides this, the total vehicle operation costs play another major role. A holistic view of the overall powertrain system including the combustion process, exhaust gas aftertreatment, energy recuperation and energy storage is necessary in order to obtain the best possible system for a given application. A management system coordinating the energy flow between the different subsystems while guaranteeing low exhaust emissions plays a major part in operating such complex architectures under optimal conditions.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Potential of a Variable Miller Cycle for SI Knock Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1122
A promising combustion technology for DISI downsizing engines is the Miller cycle. It is based on an early intake valve closing for the separation of effective and geometric compression ratio. Therefore IAV has prepared a turbocharged DISI test engine with a high geometric compression ratio. This engine is equipped with the Schaeffler “UniAir” variable valve train in order to investigate a variable Miller cycle valve timing in the turbocharged map area. The goal is to investigate whether and how a rapidly variable Miller cycle can influence the knocking behavior. Therefore its potential for a SI knock control can be evaluated. The investigated parameters in a steady-state engine dyno mode were the intake valve closing timing, the intake camshaft phasing and the ignition timing. A variable intake valve closing Miller cycle strategy, a variable intake camshaft phasing Miller cycle strategy and a state-of-the- art ignition timing strategy have been investigated.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Ventilation Strategies for SI Cylinder Deactivation Based on a Variable Valve Train

2016-10-17
2016-01-2346
Advanced SI engines for passenger cars often use the cylinder deactivation technology for dethrottling and thus achieving a reduction of fuel consumption. The gas exchange valves of the deactivated cylinders are closed permanently by a zero lift of the cams. The solutions for cylinder deactivation can vary in the kind of gas composition included in the deactivated cylinders: charge air, exhaust gas or vacuum. All these strategies have in common the frequent loss of captured charge mass from cycle to cycle. Their two-stroke compression-expansion cycle additionally intensifies this phenomenon. Thus, a significant decrease of the minimum cylinder pressure can cause an undesired entry of lubricant into the combustion chamber. The idea was to ventilate the generally deactivated cylinders frequently to compensate the loss of captured cylinder charge mass. The task was to keep the minimum cylinder pressure above a certain limit to prevent the piston rings from a failure.
Journal Article

Influence of Innovative Diesel-Ethanol Blend on Combustion, Emission and Fuel-Carrying Components

2013-10-14
2013-01-2696
The strong demand for diesel fuel is producing a surplus of gasoline fractions in Europe. Despite new vehicles using less energy, the rising volume of traffic will lead to more diesel being consumed. European legislation demands that renewable fuels cover 10% of energy consumed in the transport sector. The present strategy of dividing biofuels in equal shares between diesel and gasoline does not help to improve this situation. It seems reasonable not only to add FAME but also ethanol to diesel. Unfortunately, fuel blends containing ethanol cannot be used in existing cars without hardware modifications. This is because of ethanol's characteristics and well-known from the experience gathered with gasoline cars. As such, the first part of this study investigates material compatibility, focusing on corrosion and changes to the mechanical properties of the materials used in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Model-Based Calibration for a Gasoline Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0722
To meet the ever increasing requirements in the areas of performance, fuel economy and emission, more and more subsystems and control functions are being added to modern engines. This leads to a quick increase in the number of control parameters and consequently dramatic time and cost increase for engine calibration. To deal with this problem, the automotive industry has turned to model-based calibration for a solution. Model-based calibration is a method that uses modern Design of Experiments (DoE), statistical modeling and optimization techniques to efficiently produce high quality calibrations for engines. There are two major enablers for carrying out this method - fully automated engine control and measurement system, and advanced mathematical tools for DoE, modeling and optimization.
Technical Paper

Holistic Evaluation of CO2 Saving Potentials for New Degrees of Freedom in SI Engine Process Control Based on Physical Simulations

2018-09-10
2018-01-1654
Specific shifting of load points is an important approach in order to reduce the fuel consumption of gasoline engines. A potential measure is cylinder deactivation, which is used as a study example. Currently CO2 savings of new concepts are evaluated by dynamic cycles simulations. The fuel consumption during driving cycles is calculated based on consumption-optimized steady-state engine maps. Discrete load point shifts occur as shifts within maps. For reasons of comfort shifts require neutral torque. The work of deactivated cylinders must be compensated by active cylinders within one working cycle. Due to the larger time constant of the air path the air charge must be increased or decreased in order to deactivate or activate cylinders without affecting the torque. A working-cycle-resolved, continuously variable parameter is prerequisite for process control. Manipulation of ignition timing enables a reduction of efficiency and gained work.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Engine Torque Mapping Using Computer-Aided Calibration

2005-04-11
2005-01-0055
This paper presents the results of using Computer-Aided Calibration (CAC) methods for engine torque mapping. Mapping was done in three modes: stoichometric, power enrichment and catalyst protection. The spark advance and air/fuel ratio were optimized to find the minimum values for best torque. The optimized variables were subject to the limits of the catalyst temperature and engine knocking. CAC methods are not limited to engine torque mapping calibration; they can be applied to on-line verification, parameter tuning and off-line analysis.
Journal Article

Emission and Ignition Effects of Alternative Fuels at Conventional and Premixed Diesel Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0870
The growing availability of different biofuels and synthetic fuels is leading to increased diversity of automotive fuels. Understanding how fuel properties affect combustion and how engine calibration strategies can compensate for variations in fuel composition is crucial for ensuring proper engine operation in this world of increased fuel diversity. This study looks at the ability to compensate for wide changes in cetane quality. Four different fuels with variations in cetane number, volatility and composition have been tested in a single cylinder engine and compared to diesel fuel. The selected operating conditions represent the entire engine map of a passenger car diesel engine. In part load the effects were investigated for conventional and premixed Diesel combustion. The results show that part load operation is especially relevant for the detection and compensation of varying fuel properties and that, depending on engine load, different control strategies have to be applied.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Automation of Manual Gearbox Technology to Reduce Fuel Consumption and CO2-Emissions of Passenger Cars

2019-01-09
2019-26-0140
To meet the targets of Indian future emission legislation, an electrification and automation of today’s manual transmission technology is necessary. For this reason, IAV invented an electrified automated transmission family, based on well-known manual transmission technology. This low-cost automated manual transmission (AMT) approach is equipped with a 48 V electric machine and can be used as pure electric or hybrid drivetrain. Furthermore, it is possible to realize power shifts by using just one dry friction element. A small number of standard components combined with a low voltage electric machine and an electromechanical actuation system is sufficient to create a maximum of flexibility to meet future emission fleet targets, without having the disadvantageous high costs for a high-voltage electric system. To detect the optimal powertrain configuration, IAV used a unique advance development tool called Powertrain Synthesis.
Technical Paper

Control of a Fuel Cell Air Supply Module (ASM)

2004-03-08
2004-01-1009
Fuel cell systems emerge as a new technology, which is expected to play an important role for future powertrain applications. To enable this technology's entrance into the market, new developments to improve robustness, cost efficiency and maintainability are necessary. Besides the stack itself, several subsystems are required to operate a fuel cell system. The technical challenges for developing and optimizing these subsystems are comparable to the challenges in the stack development itself. The air delivery system is considered to have a major impact, subject to overall efficiency, noise emissions and costs. These properties are determined not only by the system hardware, but also by the chosen control strategy. This paper describes an intelligent model based control strategy, which enables the system to use optimal operation points of compressor and motor. The quantities to be controlled are air mass flow and pressure.
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