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Technical Paper

Potential of an Innovative, Fully Variable Valvetrain

Under the persistent pressure to further reduce fuel consumption worldwide, it is necessary to advance the processes that influence the efficiency of gasoline engines. In doing so, harnessing the entire potential of fully variable mechanical valve trains will involve targeting efforts on optimizing all design parameters. A new type of valve timing system is used to portray thermodynamic and mechanical as well as electronic aspects of developing fully variable mechanical valve timing and lift systems
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assessment of Hybrid Powertrain Solutions

This paper shows the main results of a research activity carried out in order to investigate the impact of different hybridization concepts on vehicle fuel economy during standard homologation cycles (NEDC, FTP75, US Highway, Artemis). Comparative analysis between a standard passenger vehicle and three different hybrid solutions based on the same vehicle platform is presented. The following parallel hybrid powertrain solutions were investigated: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) solution (three different levels of hybridization are investigated with respect to different Electric Motor Generator size and battery storage/power capacity), High Speed Flywheel (HSF) system described as a fully integrated mechanical (kinetic) hybrid solution based on the quite innovative approach, and hydraulic hybrid system (HHV). In order to perform a fare analysis between different hybrid systems, analysis is also carried out for equal system storage capacities.
Technical Paper

Measurement of 3-D In-Cylinder Flow Fields Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

In-cylinder charge motion plays a key role in optimizing the combustion process of modern reciprocating engines. The present paper describes a method for obtaining the volumetric, isothermal, in-cylinder velocity flow field using Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The DGV system is designed for measuring time-averaged velocity data in three different light sheet directions using a single camera system with the aim of providing planar, spatially resolved, three-component velocity data of the cylindrical cross section. As DGV provides time-averaged data, the results can be directly compared with data obtained by 3-D CFD analysis. An automated program code generates characteristic numbers of the measured velocity fields with the aim of assessing and comparing the results of different engine concepts.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow Field Measurement with Doppler Global Velocimetry in Combination with Droplet Distribution Visualization by Mie Scattering

Flow fields and fuel distribution play a critical role in developing the combustion process inside the cylinders of piston engines. This has prompted the development of measurement and diagnostic capabilities including laser techniques like Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The paper provides an overview of the basics of DGV and the type of results that can be obtained. It also includes a short comparison to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) which is a popular alternative method. Furthermore, it is shown that DGV can be used simultaneously in combination with droplet distribution visualization inside cylinders based on Mie scattering.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.