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Journal Article

Zero-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Heat Release Rate in DI Diesel Engines

Zero-dimensional heat release rate models have the advantage of being both easy to handle and computationally efficient. In addition, they are capable of predicting the effects of important engine parameters on the combustion process. In this study, a zero-dimensional combustion model based on physical and chemical sub-models for local processes like injection, spray formation, ignition and combustion is presented. In terms of injection simulation, the presented model accounts for a phenomenological nozzle flow model considering the nozzle passage inlet configuration and an approach for modeling the characteristics of the Diesel spray and consequently the mixing process. A formulation for modeling the effects of intake swirl flow pattern, squish flow and injection characteristics on the in-cylinder turbulent kinetic energy is presented and compared with the CFD simulation results.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Journal Article

Management of Energy Flow in Complex Commercial Vehicle Powertrains

After the realization of very low exhaust gas emissions and corresponding OBD requirements to fulfill Euro VI and Tier 4 legislation, the focus in heavy-duty powertrain development is on the reduction of fuel consumption and thus CO₂ emissions again. Besides this, the total vehicle operation costs play another major role. A holistic view of the overall powertrain system including the combustion process, exhaust gas aftertreatment, energy recuperation and energy storage is necessary in order to obtain the best possible system for a given application. A management system coordinating the energy flow between the different subsystems while guaranteeing low exhaust emissions plays a major part in operating such complex architectures under optimal conditions.
Technical Paper

Holistic Development of Future Low NOx Emission Concepts for Heavy-Duty Applications

Further tightening of NOx emission standards as well as CO2 emission limits for commercial vehicles are currently under discussion. In the on-road market, lowering NOx emissions up to 90%, down to 0.02 g/bhp-hr, has been proposed by CARB and is evaluated by US EPA. Testing for in-service conformity using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) is currently under review in the US. In Europe, CO2 emission limits are anticipated and a CO2 monitoring program is ongoing. PEMS legislation has been recently tightened and further restrictions can be expected. Stage V legislation has been introduced in Europe and it is foreseeable that further tightening of off-road standards will take place in the future. This study deals with virtual development and evaluation of future engine and exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) technology solutions to fulfill the diverse future emission requirements with emphasis on off-road applications.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Control Using a Novel Ignition Delay Model

The future emission standards, including real driving emissions (RDE) measurements are big challenges for engine and after-treatment development. Also for development of a robust control system, in real driving emissions cycles under varied operating conditions and climate conditions, like low ambient temperature as well as high altitude are advanced physical-based algorithms beneficial in order to realize more precise, robust and efficient control concepts. A fast-running novel physical-based ignition delay model for diesel engine combustion simulation and additionally, for combustion control in the next generation of ECUs is presented and validated in this study. Detailed chemical reactions of the ignition processes are solved by a n-heptane mechanism which is coupled to the thermodynamic simulation of in-cylinder processes during the compression and autoignition phases.