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Journal Article

Zero-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Heat Release Rate in DI Diesel Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-1065
Zero-dimensional heat release rate models have the advantage of being both easy to handle and computationally efficient. In addition, they are capable of predicting the effects of important engine parameters on the combustion process. In this study, a zero-dimensional combustion model based on physical and chemical sub-models for local processes like injection, spray formation, ignition and combustion is presented. In terms of injection simulation, the presented model accounts for a phenomenological nozzle flow model considering the nozzle passage inlet configuration and an approach for modeling the characteristics of the Diesel spray and consequently the mixing process. A formulation for modeling the effects of intake swirl flow pattern, squish flow and injection characteristics on the in-cylinder turbulent kinetic energy is presented and compared with the CFD simulation results.
Technical Paper

The Controlled Vane-Type Oil Pump for Oil Supply on Demand for Passenger Car Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-1319
The oil supply of combustion engines today is typically realized by oil pumps with constant displacement. To secure the operational safety in hot idling these pumps are oversized, what causes low efficiency in most of operating speeds. IAV developed a vane-type oil pump, which allows to infinitely regulate the delivery rate. Because of no oil release over a pressure limiting valve the pump achieves a higher efficiency in a wide range of operation. The design of the theoretical delivery characteristic allows the calculated and particular increase of oil pressure to avoid critical operating conditions and to support hydraulically operated functions as variable camshaft timing.
Technical Paper

The Automated Shift Transmission (AST) - Possibilities and Limits in Production-Type Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0881
State-of-the-art powertrain concepts with automatic transmission must comply with increasingly stringent legislation on emissions and fuel consumption while fulfilling or surpassing customers' expectations as to driveability. In this respect, automated manual transmissions (AMT) and automated shift transmissions (AST) must compete with conventional automatic transmissions (AT) and continuously variable transmissions (CVT). In order to exploit the theoretical advantages of ASTs and put them into practice, complex ECU functions are needed to coordinate engine and transmission. Adaptive control, sophisticated clutch management and an intelligent shifting strategy allow shifting quality and shifting points to be simultaneously optimized to the effect that performance and comfort are increased while fuel consumption is reduced.
Technical Paper

Potential of an Innovative, Fully Variable Valvetrain

2004-03-08
2004-01-1393
Under the persistent pressure to further reduce fuel consumption worldwide, it is necessary to advance the processes that influence the efficiency of gasoline engines. In doing so, harnessing the entire potential of fully variable mechanical valve trains will involve targeting efforts on optimizing all design parameters. A new type of valve timing system is used to portray thermodynamic and mechanical as well as electronic aspects of developing fully variable mechanical valve timing and lift systems
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2214
Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Technical Paper

NVH Optimization of Driveline with Mathematical Optimization Methods

2013-01-09
2013-26-0089
The Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) behaviour of the powertrain, the driveline and the mounting is playing a very important role in the vehicle development process. The method described in this paper presents the coupling of Multi Body Simulation (MBS) with mathematical optimization tools exemplary for a powertrain mounting at a passenger car vehicle. It is shown, how this approach is integrated in the IAV - development process for validation and for optimization, i.e. finding the best solution for reaching the NVH targets. In early stage of development process, torsional vibration models are used to simulate e.g. the decoupling between engine and transmission. To simulate further physical effects, the models must be more and more detailed with a lot of additional parameter. One challenge for valid models is the parameter identification. The process to do this successfully with mathematical methods will be described.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Identification of a Gasoline Common Rail Injection System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0196
The precision of direct fuel injection systems of combustion engines is crucial for the further reduction of emissions and fuel consumption. It is influenced by the dynamic behavior of the fuel system, in particular the injection valves and the common rail pressure. As model based control strategies for the fuel system could substantially improve the dynamic behavior, an accurate model of the common rail injection system for gasoline engines - consisting of the main components high-pressure pump, common rail and injection valves - that could be used for control design is highly desirable. Approaches for developing such a model are presented in this paper. For each key component, two models are derived, which differ in temporal resolution and number of degrees of freedom. Experimental data is used to validate and compare the models. The data was generated on a test bench specifically designed and built for this purpose.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

2019-04-02
2019-01-0731
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assessment of Hybrid Powertrain Solutions

2011-09-11
2011-24-0070
This paper shows the main results of a research activity carried out in order to investigate the impact of different hybridization concepts on vehicle fuel economy during standard homologation cycles (NEDC, FTP75, US Highway, Artemis). Comparative analysis between a standard passenger vehicle and three different hybrid solutions based on the same vehicle platform is presented. The following parallel hybrid powertrain solutions were investigated: Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) solution (three different levels of hybridization are investigated with respect to different Electric Motor Generator size and battery storage/power capacity), High Speed Flywheel (HSF) system described as a fully integrated mechanical (kinetic) hybrid solution based on the quite innovative approach, and hydraulic hybrid system (HHV). In order to perform a fare analysis between different hybrid systems, analysis is also carried out for equal system storage capacities.
Technical Paper

Model Based Exhaust Aftertreatment System Integration for the Development and Calibration of Ultra-Low Emission Concepts

2014-04-01
2014-01-1554
The development and calibration of exhaust aftertreatment (EAT) systems for the most diverse applications of diesel powertrain concepts requires EAT models, capable of performing concept analysis as well as control and OBD system development and calibration. On the concept side, the choice of an application-specific EAT layout from a wide technology selection is driven by a number of requirements and constraints. These include statutory requirements regarding emissions of criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG), technical constraints such as engine-out emissions and packaging, as well as economic parameters such as fuel consumption, and EAT system and system development costs. Fast and efficient execution of the analysis and multi-criteria system optimization can be done by integrating the detailed EAT models into a total system simulation.
Journal Article

Model Based E85 Cold Start Optimization for DISI Engines

2009-06-15
2009-01-1909
The startability of SI engines, especially of DISI engines, is the greatest challenge when using ethanol blended fuels. The development of a suitable injection strategy is therefore the main engineering target when developing an ethanol engine with direct injection. In order to limit the test efforts of such a program, a vaporization model has been created that provides the quantity of vaporized fuel depending on pressure and on start and end, respectively number and split relation of injections. This model takes account of the most relevant fuel properties such as density, surface tension and viscosity. It also considers the interaction of the spray with cylinder liner, cylinder head and piston. A comparison with test results shows the current status and the need for action of this simulation model.
Technical Paper

Measurement of 3-D In-Cylinder Flow Fields Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

2004-03-08
2004-01-1409
In-cylinder charge motion plays a key role in optimizing the combustion process of modern reciprocating engines. The present paper describes a method for obtaining the volumetric, isothermal, in-cylinder velocity flow field using Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The DGV system is designed for measuring time-averaged velocity data in three different light sheet directions using a single camera system with the aim of providing planar, spatially resolved, three-component velocity data of the cylindrical cross section. As DGV provides time-averaged data, the results can be directly compared with data obtained by 3-D CFD analysis. An automated program code generates characteristic numbers of the measured velocity fields with the aim of assessing and comparing the results of different engine concepts.
Journal Article

Management of Energy Flow in Complex Commercial Vehicle Powertrains

2012-04-16
2012-01-0724
After the realization of very low exhaust gas emissions and corresponding OBD requirements to fulfill Euro VI and Tier 4 legislation, the focus in heavy-duty powertrain development is on the reduction of fuel consumption and thus CO₂ emissions again. Besides this, the total vehicle operation costs play another major role. A holistic view of the overall powertrain system including the combustion process, exhaust gas aftertreatment, energy recuperation and energy storage is necessary in order to obtain the best possible system for a given application. A management system coordinating the energy flow between the different subsystems while guaranteeing low exhaust emissions plays a major part in operating such complex architectures under optimal conditions.
Technical Paper

Low-Cost Powertrain Platform for HEV and EV

2017-01-10
2017-26-0088
Currently known hybrid systems are technically complex, cost-intensive and referring to this for many end-customers not available. Under this boundaries IAV has developed a cost-optimal concept of an efficient and modular powertrain platform for electric and hybrid vehicles. The system is based on one unity gear-set for up to three speeds, which enables seamless shifting with only one friction based clutch. With this platform powertrains can be realized by using a maximum number of carry over parts (COP) for electric vehicles as well as for hybrids. The derivable hybrid powertrains of the platform system are designed for 48V electric motors (EM) which enables the maximum cost potential in combination with the realized gear set and transmission technology. The real simple powertrain platform concept is furthermore scalable for different vehicle segments optionally with or without a hybrid option.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Potential of a Variable Miller Cycle for SI Knock Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-1122
A promising combustion technology for DISI downsizing engines is the Miller cycle. It is based on an early intake valve closing for the separation of effective and geometric compression ratio. Therefore IAV has prepared a turbocharged DISI test engine with a high geometric compression ratio. This engine is equipped with the Schaeffler “UniAir” variable valve train in order to investigate a variable Miller cycle valve timing in the turbocharged map area. The goal is to investigate whether and how a rapidly variable Miller cycle can influence the knocking behavior. Therefore its potential for a SI knock control can be evaluated. The investigated parameters in a steady-state engine dyno mode were the intake valve closing timing, the intake camshaft phasing and the ignition timing. A variable intake valve closing Miller cycle strategy, a variable intake camshaft phasing Miller cycle strategy and a state-of-the- art ignition timing strategy have been investigated.
Technical Paper

Investigations on Ventilation Strategies for SI Cylinder Deactivation Based on a Variable Valve Train

2016-10-17
2016-01-2346
Advanced SI engines for passenger cars often use the cylinder deactivation technology for dethrottling and thus achieving a reduction of fuel consumption. The gas exchange valves of the deactivated cylinders are closed permanently by a zero lift of the cams. The solutions for cylinder deactivation can vary in the kind of gas composition included in the deactivated cylinders: charge air, exhaust gas or vacuum. All these strategies have in common the frequent loss of captured charge mass from cycle to cycle. Their two-stroke compression-expansion cycle additionally intensifies this phenomenon. Thus, a significant decrease of the minimum cylinder pressure can cause an undesired entry of lubricant into the combustion chamber. The idea was to ventilate the generally deactivated cylinders frequently to compensate the loss of captured cylinder charge mass. The task was to keep the minimum cylinder pressure above a certain limit to prevent the piston rings from a failure.
Journal Article

Influence of Innovative Diesel-Ethanol Blend on Combustion, Emission and Fuel-Carrying Components

2013-10-14
2013-01-2696
The strong demand for diesel fuel is producing a surplus of gasoline fractions in Europe. Despite new vehicles using less energy, the rising volume of traffic will lead to more diesel being consumed. European legislation demands that renewable fuels cover 10% of energy consumed in the transport sector. The present strategy of dividing biofuels in equal shares between diesel and gasoline does not help to improve this situation. It seems reasonable not only to add FAME but also ethanol to diesel. Unfortunately, fuel blends containing ethanol cannot be used in existing cars without hardware modifications. This is because of ethanol's characteristics and well-known from the experience gathered with gasoline cars. As such, the first part of this study investigates material compatibility, focusing on corrosion and changes to the mechanical properties of the materials used in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Flow Field Measurement with Doppler Global Velocimetry in Combination with Droplet Distribution Visualization by Mie Scattering

2009-04-20
2009-01-0652
Flow fields and fuel distribution play a critical role in developing the combustion process inside the cylinders of piston engines. This has prompted the development of measurement and diagnostic capabilities including laser techniques like Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV). The paper provides an overview of the basics of DGV and the type of results that can be obtained. It also includes a short comparison to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) which is a popular alternative method. Furthermore, it is shown that DGV can be used simultaneously in combination with droplet distribution visualization inside cylinders based on Mie scattering.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Diesel Combustion with External Mixture Formation by a Cool Flame Vaporizer

2006-10-16
2006-01-3323
The homogeneous Diesel combustion is a way to effect a soot and nitrogen oxide (NOx) free Diesel engine operation. Using direct injection of Diesel fuel, the mixture typically ignites before it is fully homogenized. In this study a homogeneous mixture is prepared outside of the combustion chamber by a Cool Flame Vaporizer. At first the specification of the vaporizer is given in this paper. To determine the composition of the vaporizer gas an analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) was made. The results give an idea of the effects on engine combustion. Followed by, the vaporizer was adapted to a single-cylinder Diesel engine. To adapt the engine's configuration regarding compression ratio and inlet temperature range a zero dimensional engine process simulation software was utilized. The engine was run in different operating modes.
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