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Technical Paper

Worldwide Electrical Energy Consumption of Various HVAC Systems in BEVs and Their Thermal Management and Assessment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1190
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are equipped with Mobile Air Conditioning systems (MACs) to ensure a comfortable cabin temperature in all climates and ambient conditions as well as the optional conditioning of the traction battery. An assessment of the global electrical energy consumption of various MACs has been derived, where the basis of the assessment procedure is the climate data GREEN-MAC-LCCP 2007 (Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental - Mobile Air Condition - Life Cycle Climate Performance) and the improved LCCP2013 (Life Cycle Climate Performance. The percentage driving time during 6 AM and 24 PM is divided into six different temperature bins with the solar radiation and relative humidity for 211 cities distributed over Europe, North, Central, and South America, Asia, South West Pacific, and Africa. The energy consumption of the MACs is determined by a thermal vehicle simulation. In this work, four different MACs are simulated and compared.
Technical Paper

Vw Lupo, the WorldS First 3-Liter Car

2000-11-01
2000-01-C044
After the success of the 4-cylinder 1.9-liter TDI and SDI direct-injection diesel engines in the Passat, Jetta and Polo classes, a new 3-cylinder TDI has been developed for use in the "Lupo 3L,' a compact car with a fuel consumption of 3 liters per 100 km. A new injection system with unit injectors, together with a fully electronically controlled engine management system featuring drive-by-wire- technology, a turbocharger with variable turbine geometry and a fully automated mechanical gearbox and clutch, for the first time ensures the potential to meet the stringent D4 exhaust emissions level and to achieve excellent fuel economy. The wheel-torque based engine and gearbox management systems optimize engine operation in terms of efficiency and emissions.
Technical Paper

Virtual Investigation of Real Fuels by Means of 3D-CFD Engine Simulations

2019-09-09
2019-24-0090
The reduction of both harmful emissions (CO, HC, NOx, etc.) and gases responsible for greenhouse effects (especially CO2) are mandatory aspects to be considered in the development process of any kind of propulsion concept. Focusing on ICEs, the main development topics are today not only the reduction of harmful emissions, increase of thermodynamic efficiency, etc. but also the decarbonization of fuels which offers the highest potential for the reduction of CO2 emissions. Accordingly, the development of future ICEs will be closely linked to the development of CO2 neutral fuels (e.g. biofuels and e-fuels) as they will be part of a common development process. This implies an increase in development complexity, which needs the support of engine simulations. In this work, the virtual modeling of real fuel behavior is addressed to improve current simulation capabilities in studying how a specific composition can affect the engine performance.
Technical Paper

Virtual Exhaust-Gas Aftertreatment Test Bench - A Contribution to Model-Based Development and Calibration of Engine Control Algorithmsa

2012-04-16
2012-01-0897
Introducing new exhaust-gas aftertreatment concepts at mass production level places exacting demands on the overall development process - from defining process engineering to developing and calibrating appropriate control-unit algorithms. Strategies for operating and controlling exhaust-gas aftertreatment components, such as oxidation and selective catalytic reduction catalysts (DOC and SCR), diesel particulate filters (DPF) and SCR on DPF systems (SCR/DPF), have a major influence on meeting statutory exhaust-emission standards. Therefore it is not only necessary to consider the physical behavior of individual components in the powertrain but also the way in which they interact as the basis for ensuring efficient operation of the overall system.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Gas Components of Modern Diesel Passenger Cars

1999-03-01
1999-01-0514
In this paper the emissions of regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components of a fleet of diesel passenger cars measured at Volkswagen in the eighties are compared with the results of a new investigation on modern direct-injection diesel vehicles. The potential of improved diesel fuels to reduce emissions is also examined. The emissions of regulated exhaust gas components as well as fuel consumption have been reduced significantly in the last years as a result of the systematic further development of conventional swirl chamber engines and exhaust gas after-treatment as well as the introduction of SDI/TDI engines. As was to be expected, this has also had a positive effect on the emissions of unregulated exhaust gas components. It has been possible, for example, to reduce the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on diesel particulates by more than 95%.
Technical Paper

The Volkswagen Vanagon Syncro - A Novel 4 WD Concept with the Mew 2.11 Watercooled Engine

1986-10-01
861350
The VOLKSWAGEN VANAGON SYNCRO is presented as a novel 4 WD. The visco coupling is the heart of the forward drive train. Main advantages are automatic performance distribution between the axles and self-locking at extreme revolution differences between front and rear. Another important advantage of the standard 2 WD Vanagon is the well-known excellent spring suspension and damping comfort which is not negatively effected by the 4 WD technique. The vehicle is equipped with a new more powerful engine with 2,1 liter displacement and 70 kW (95 HP) nominal power output which is based on the watercooled horizontally opposed engine program. Electronic fuel injection and ignition are integrated into a unique Volkswagen system called DIGIFANTR. Vehicle performance data and fuel economy figures are given in comparison with 2 WD designs and previously available engine power train combinations.
Technical Paper

The Response of a Closed Loop Controlled Diesel Engine on Fuel Variation

2008-10-06
2008-01-2471
An investigation was conducted to elucidate, how the latest turbocharged, direct injection Volkswagen diesel engine generation with cylinder pressure based closed loop control, to be launched in the US in 2008, reacts to fuel variability. A de-correlated fuels matrix was designed to bracket the range of US market fuel properties, which allowed a clear correlation of individual fuel properties with engine response. The test program consisting of steady state operating points showed that cylinder pressure based closed loop control successfully levels out the influence of fuel ignition quality, showing the effectiveness of this new technology for markets with a wide range of fuel qualities. However, it also showed that within the cetane range tested (39 to 55), despite the constant combustion mid-point, cetane number still has an influence on particulate and gaseous emissions. Volatility and energy density also influence the engine's behavior, but less strongly.
Technical Paper

The Magnesium Hatchback of the 3-Liter Car: Processing and Corrosion Protection

2000-03-06
2000-01-1123
The hatchback of Volkswagen's 3 liter car (3 l fuel consumption per 100 km) consists of an inner component of die casting magnesium (AM50) covered with an aluminum panel from the outside. This hybrid design requires a new manufacturing process: The pre-coated magnesium part will be bonded and folded with the bare aluminum part. Corrosion protection is provided by an organic coating system which both protects against general corrosion and galvanic corrosion. The corrosion of the Al / Mg sandwich has been examined with hybrid samples which are similar to the hatchback. Several powder coatings (epoxy resin, polyester resin, hybrid resin), wet paints and cathodic electro-coating paints of different thicknesses and compositions have been applied to the magnesium part. They show that only powder coating provides adequate protection. Galvanic corrosion at the points of attachment of the hatchback might be possible (for example the bolted joint of the hinge).
Technical Paper

The Automated Shift Transmission (AST) - Possibilities and Limits in Production-Type Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-0881
State-of-the-art powertrain concepts with automatic transmission must comply with increasingly stringent legislation on emissions and fuel consumption while fulfilling or surpassing customers' expectations as to driveability. In this respect, automated manual transmissions (AMT) and automated shift transmissions (AST) must compete with conventional automatic transmissions (AT) and continuously variable transmissions (CVT). In order to exploit the theoretical advantages of ASTs and put them into practice, complex ECU functions are needed to coordinate engine and transmission. Adaptive control, sophisticated clutch management and an intelligent shifting strategy allow shifting quality and shifting points to be simultaneously optimized to the effect that performance and comfort are increased while fuel consumption is reduced.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Quantitative In-Cylinder NO LIF Measurements with a KrF Excimer Laser Applied to a Mass-Production SI Engine Fueled with Isooctane and Regular Gasoline

1997-02-24
970824
Quantitative 1-D spatially-resolved NO LIF measurements in the combustion chamber of a mass-production SI engine with port-fuel injection using a tunable KrF excimer laser are presented. One of the main advantages of this approach is that KrF laser radiation at 248 nm is only slightly absorbed by the in-cylinder gases during engine combustion and therefore it allows measurements at all crank angles. Multispecies detection turned out to be crucial for this approach since it is possible to calculate the in-cylinder temperature from the detected Rayleigh scattering and the simultaneously acquired pressure traces. Additionally, it allows the monitoring of interfering emissions and spectroscopic effects like fluorescence trapping which turned out to take place. Excitation with 248 nm yields LIF emissions at shorter wavelengths than the laser wavelength (at 237 and 226 nm).
Technical Paper

Potential of an Innovative, Fully Variable Valvetrain

2004-03-08
2004-01-1393
Under the persistent pressure to further reduce fuel consumption worldwide, it is necessary to advance the processes that influence the efficiency of gasoline engines. In doing so, harnessing the entire potential of fully variable mechanical valve trains will involve targeting efforts on optimizing all design parameters. A new type of valve timing system is used to portray thermodynamic and mechanical as well as electronic aspects of developing fully variable mechanical valve timing and lift systems
Journal Article

Physico-Chemical Modeling of an Integrated SCR on DPF (SCR/DPF) System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1083
A physico-chemical model of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF-system involving NH₃ storage and SCR reactions as well as soot oxidation reactions with NO₂ has been developed and validated based on fundamental experimental investigations on synthetic gas test bench. The goal of the work was the quantitative modeling of NOx and NH₃ tailpipe emissions in transient test cycles in order to use the model for concept design analysis and the development of control strategies. Another focus was put on the impact of soot on SCR/DPF systems. In temperature-programmed desorption experiments, soot-loaded SCR/DPF filters showed a higher NH₃ storage capacity compared to soot-free samples. The measured effect was small, but could affect the NH₃ slip in vehicle applications. A bimodal desorption characteristic was measured for different adsorption temperatures and heating rates.
Technical Paper

Physical Modeling of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor: Analytical Approach and Validation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2214
Global warming is a climate phenomenon with world-wide ecological, economic and social impact which calls for strong measures in reducing automotive fuel consumption and thus CO2 emissions. In this regard, turbocharging and the associated designing of the air path of the engine are key technologies in elaborating more efficient and downsized engines. Engine performance simulation or development, parameterization and testing of model-based air path control strategies require adequate performance maps characterizing the working behavior of turbochargers. The working behavior is typically identified on test rig which is expensive in terms of costs and time required. Hence, the objective of the research project “virtual Exhaust Gas Turbocharger” (vEGTC) is an alternative approach which considers a physical modeled vEGTC to allow a founded prediction of efficiency, pressure rise as well as pressure losses of an arbitrary turbocharger with known geometry.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

2007-01-23
2007-01-0035
Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Operating a Gasoline Engine at Constant low Temperature Conditions. The Influence of Different Fuel Droplet Sizes

1996-10-01
961999
This paper describes an investigation of one operating point of the transient warmup curve of a gasoline engine. Coolant liquid and oil of this engine have been cooled down to a constant low level in order to perform detailed measurements and an analysis of this particular warmup point. The influence of low coolant temperature, different pressure drop in an air assisted fuel injection system and a variation of ignition angles on specific fuel consumption, exhaust emissions, energy conversion etc. will be shown. The results show that the suggested test procedure (keeping the coolant temperature at a constant low level) provides the possibility to simulate the behaviour of an engine with air assisted fuel injection during warmup. During this warmup period it is desired to run the engine with retarded ignition timing to realize a fast catalyst warmup.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Steering Rack Force Behaviour and Identification of Feedback Information

2016-09-02
2016-01-9112
Electric power steering systems (EPS) are characterized by high inertia and therefore by a considerably damped transmission behaviour. While this is desirable for comfort-oriented designs, EPS do not provide enough feedback of the driving conditions, especially for drivers with a sporty driving style. The systematic actuation of the electric motor of an EPS makes it possible to specifically increment the intensity of the response. In this context, the road-sided induced forces of the tie rod and the steering rack force provide all the information for the steering system’s response. Former concepts differentiate between use and disturbance information by defining frequency ranges. Since these ranges overlap strongly, this differentiation does not segment distinctively. The presented article describes a method to identify useful information in the feedback path of the steering system depending on the driving situation.
Technical Paper

New ways of fluid flow control in automobiles: Experience with exhaust gas aftertreatmetn control

2000-06-12
2000-05-0299
Flow control by fluidic devices - without moving parts - offers advantages of reliability and low cost. As an example of their automobile application based on authors'' long-time experience the paper describes a fluidic valve for switching exhaust gas flow in a NOx absorber into a by-pass during regeneration phase. The unique feature here is the fluidic valve being of monostable and of axisymmetric design, integrated into the absorber body. After development in aerodynamic laboratory, the final design was tested on engine test stand and finally in a car. This proved that the performance under high temperature and pulsation existing in exhaust systems is reliable and promising. Fluidic valves require, however, close matching with aerodynamic load. To optimize the exhaust system layout for the whole load-speed range and reaching minimum counter- pressure, both the components of exhaust system and control strategy have to be properly adopted.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
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