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Technical Paper

Towards Quantitative Prediction of Urea Thermo-Hydrolysis and Deposits Formation in Exhaust Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Systems

In order to assist in fast design cycle of Diesel engines selective catalytic reduction (SCR) exhaust systems, significant endeavor is currently being made to improve numerical simulation accuracy of urea thermo-hydrolysis. In this article, the achievements of a recently developed urea semi-detailed decomposition chemical scheme are assessed using three available databases from the literature. First, evaporation and thermo-hydrolysis of urea-water solution (UWS) single-droplets hanged on a thin thermocouple ring (127 μm) as well as on a thick quartz (275 μm), have been simulated at ambient temperature conditions ranging from 473K to 773K. It has been shown that the numerical results, in terms of evaporation rate and urea gasification, as well as droplet temperature history are very close to the experiments if the heat flux coming from the droplet support is properly accounted for.
Technical Paper

The Dual Flame Model (DFM) : A Phenomenological 0D Diesel Combustion Model to Predict Pollutant Emissions

IFP Energies nouvelles (IFPEN) has a large experience in the development of engine simulation platforms. During the last decade, the Dual Flame Model (DFM), a physical 0-dimensional (0D) combustion model designed for Diesel applications, was developed and continuously improved. The DFM formalism allows to represent quite precisely the in-cylinder combustion process scenario, by accounting for the first order relevant physics impacting fuel oxidation. First of all, this allows to account for the impact of engine actuators on combustion (e.g. injection systems performing complex injection strategies, Low Pressure and High Pressure EGR loops,…) and then to describe the pollutant emissions formation processes, being chemical kinetics strongly dependent on the in-cylinder thermochemical conditions. The aim of this communication is to present the potential of using the DFM model in the different stages of a Diesel engine development process for pollutant emissions optimization.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Technical Paper

State of the Art and Analysis of Control Oriented NOx Models

Future pollutant emissions legislations are expected to be increasingly stringent. To reduce Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions produced by Diesel engines, advanced combustion technologies - like Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) -, vehicle hybridization and NOx after-treatment systems - such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems - can be considered, leading to a growing demand for NOx models. In this paper, we present a state-of-art of the different existing NOx models, from the black-boxes to the three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. A way to classify these models is proposed. The paper also introduces the current applications for each subgroup of models. Then, a black-box and two grey-box NOx models are studied regarding their accuracy and their sensitivity to model inputs. These models are validated for two Diesel engines on steady-state operating points as well as on transient operations. The semi-physical models accurately predict NOx emissions.
Journal Article

Stabilization of Highly Diluted Gasoline Direct Injection Engine using Innovative Ignition Systems

Dilution is a promising way to improve fuel economy of Spark-Ignited (SI) gasoline engines. In this context, influence of innovative ignition systems on the dilution acceptance of a 400cc optical GDI engine has been studied. Several systems were tested and compared to a conventional coil: a dual-coil system and two nanosecond scaled plasma generators. Two operating points were studied: 2.8bar IMEP (net) at 2000rpm and 9bar IMEP (net) at 1200rpm. Two diluents were evaluated: real EGR and air (lean combustion). High-speed imaging at frequency up to 10kHz was performed to visualize both spark and combustion initiation and propagation. Voltage and current were measured to infer the energy deposited in the spark plug gap. The dual-coil DCO™ system and the nanosecond multi-pulse plasma generator at their maximum power showed an ability to extend the dilution range of the engine.
Journal Article

Simulation and Optical Diagnostics to Characterize Low Octane Number Dual Fuel Strategies: a Step Towards the Octane on Demand Engine

Reduction of CO2 emissions is becoming one of the great challenges for future gasoline engines. Downsizing is one of the most promising strategies to achieve this reduction, though it facilitates occurrence of knocking. Therefore, downsizing has to be associated with knock limiting technologies. The aim of the current research program is to adapt the fuel Research-Octane-Number (RON) injected in the combustion chamber to prevent knock occurrence and keep combustion phasing at optimum. This is achieved by a dual fuel injection strategy, involving a low-RON naphtha-based fuel (Naphtha, RON 71) and a high-RON octane booster (Ethanol, RON107). The ratio of fuel quantity on each injector is adapted to fit the RON requirement as a function of engine operating conditions. Hence, it becomes crucial to understand and predict the mixture preparation, to quantify its spatial and cycle-to-cycle variations and to apprehend the consequences on combustion behavior - knock especially.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity of SCR Control Strategies to Diesel Exhaust Fluid Quality: A Simulation Study

This paper presents the evaluation of the impact of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) quality on the behavior of a controlled SCR system. Proper control of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system is crucial to fulfill NOx emissions standards of modern Diesel engines. Today, the urea concentration of DEF is not considered as a control system input. Moreover, Urea Quality Sensors (UQS) are now available to provide real time information of Diesel Exhaust Fluid quality. The impact of percent urea from 20 to 36% on the NOx emissions of a passenger car 2.2L Diesel engine is calculated using a reference SCR model and a reference SCR control tool in multiple NEDC transient conditions. Several control tunings are tested with different levels of feedback. Ammonia slip levels are also calculated.
Technical Paper

Potential of Naphtha-like Fuel on an Existing Modern Compression Ignition Engine

Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOX and particulates emissions when used in diesel engines. Indeed, fuels highly resistant to auto-ignition provide more time for fuel and air mixing prior to the combustion and therefore a more homogeneous combustion. Nevertheless, major issues still need to be addressed, particularly regarding UHC and CO emissions at low load and particulate/noise combustion trade-off at high load. The purpose of this study is to investigate how an existing modern diesel engine could be operated with low-cetane fuels and define the most appropriate Cetane Number (CN) to reduce engine-out emissions. With this regard, a selection of naphtha and gasoline blends, ranging from CN30/RON 57 to CN35/RON 41 was investigated on a Euro 5, 1.6L four-cylinder engine. Results were compared to the conventional diesel running mode using a minimum NOX level oriented calibration, both in steady state and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

Potential of CN25 Naphtha-Based Fuel to Power Compression Ignition Engines

Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in Diesel engines. In this context, straight-run naphtha, a refinery stream directly derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. The current study is one step further toward naphtha-based fuel to power compression ignition engines. The potential of a cetane number 25 fuel (CN25), resulting from a blend of hydro-treated straight-run naphtha CN35 with unleaded non-oxygenated gasoline RON91 was assessed. For this purpose, investigations were conducted on multiple fronts, including experimental activities on an injection test bed, in an optically accessible vessel and in a single cylinder engine. CFD simulations were also developed to provide relevant explanations.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Dual-fuel CNG/Diesel Combustion Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions

Dual-fuel combustion strategies combining a premixed charge of natural gas and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce CO2 emissions as a result of the high Hydrogen/Carbon (H/C) ratio of methane gas. Moreover, the high octane number of methane means that dual-fuel combustion strategies can be employed on compression ignition engines without the need to vary the engine compression ratio, thereby significantly reducing the cost of engine hardware modifications. The aim of this investigation is to explore the fundamental combustion phenomena occurring when methane is ignited with a pilot injection of diesel fuel. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder optical research engine which is typical of modern, light-duty diesel engines. A high-speed digital camera recorded time-resolved combustion luminosity and an intensified CCD camera was used for single-cycle OH*chemiluminescence imaging.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Combustion Regimes in a Dual Fuel Engine

Among the new combustion concepts envisaged to meet future regulations, the Dual Fuel (DF) concept is considered to be an attractive strategy due to its potential to reduce CO2 emissions and engine-out pollutant emissions levels. A small quantity of high-cetane fuel (Diesel) is injected in the combustion chamber in order to ignite a homogeneous mixture of air and a highly volatile fuel (gasoline in our study). The DF concept has been shown to achieve improved engine thermal efficiency and low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. However, the physical mechanisms controlling DF combustion and in particular, determination of the predominant combustion regime(s) are not yet well understood. In this study, numerical simulations (CFD) and optical engine measurements are used to investigate Dual Fuel combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Brake Thermal Efficiency Optimum Heat Release Rate for a Diesel Engine

According to thermodynamic analysis of ideal engine cycles, Otto cycle thermal efficiency exceeds that of the Diesel and Sabathe (or Dual) cycles. However, zero-dimensional calculations indicated that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of an actual Otto or Diesel engine could be higher with a Sabathe (or Seilliger) type cycle, within a limited peak firing pressure (PFP). To confirm these results with an actual engine, a three-injector combustion system (center and two sides) was utilized to allow more flexibility in the heat release rate (HRR) profile than the conventional single injector system in the previous study. The experimental result was qualitatively consistent with the calculated results even though its HRR had less peak and longer duration than ideal. In this study, a new thermodynamic cycle with higher HRR in the expansion stroke than the ideal Sabathe cycle, was thus developed. The proposed (higher) HRR was achieved by overlapped fuel injection with the three injectors.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Thermal Management Platform of an Automotive D.I Diesel Engine to Predict the Impact of Downsizing and Hybridization during a Cold Start

Thermal management is a key issue to minimize fuel consumption while dealing with pollutant emissions. It paves the way for developing new methods and tools in order to assess the effects of warm up phase with different drivetrains architectures and to define the most suitable solution to manage oil and coolant temperatures. DEVICE (Downsized hybrid Diesel Engine for Very low fuel ConsumptIon and CO2 Emissions) project consists in designing hybrid powertrain to cut off significantly CO2 emissions. It combines a 2-cylinder engine with an electric motor and a 7-gear dual clutch transmission. Hybridization and downsizing offer a great improvement of fuel economy and it is valuable to study their effects on thermal management. Hence, a dedicated AMESim platform is developed to model the fluids temperatures as well as the energy balance changes due to the powertrain architecture.
Technical Paper

Low RON Gasoline Calibration on a Multi-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine to Fulfill the Euro 6d Regulation

Reducing the CO2 footprint, limiting the pollutant emissions and rebalancing the ongoing shift demand toward middle-distillate fuels are major concerns for vehicle manufacturers and oil refiners. In this context, gasoline-like fuels have been recently identified as good candidates. Straight run naphtha, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, allows for a reduction of both NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression-ignition engines. CO2 benefits are also expected thanks to naphtha’s higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel. In previous studies, wide ranges of Cetane Number (CN) naphtha fuels have been evaluated and CN 35 naphtha fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern, nozzle design and air-path technology, have been performed on a light-duty single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Intake System Diagnosis for Diesel Engine with Dual-Loop EGR

This paper proposes a method to detect an intake manifold leakage for a Diesel engine with a dual loop EGR system. The intake manifold leak has a strong impact on the engine performances by changing the intake manifold burned gas ratio. This fault is analyzed according to the control structure used and also according to the EGR operating mode. The paper proposes a diagnosis algorithm to detect the intake manifold leak in sequential or simultaneous use of the two EGR paths. The sensors considered are the mass air flow meter, the intake manifold pressure sensor, the exhaust equivalence ratio sensor and the differential pressure sensor (across the HP EGR valve). The diagnosis is based on a criteria that uses the redundancy between these sensors and air system models or estimators. The diagnosis threshold depends on the engine operating conditions as well as the sensor or model dispersions.
Technical Paper

Identifying the Driving Processes of Diesel Spray Injection through Mixture Fraction and Velocity Field Measurements at ECN Spray A

Diesel spray mixture formation is investigated at target conditions using multiple diagnostics and laboratories. High-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the velocity field inside and outside the jet simultaneously with a new frame straddling synchronization scheme. The PIV measurements are carried out in the Engine Combustion Network Spray A target conditions, enabling direct comparisons with mixture fraction measurements previously performed in the same conditions, and forming a unique database at diesel conditions. A 1D spray model, based upon mass and momentum exchange between axial control volumes and near-Gaussian velocity and mixture fraction profiles is evaluated against the data.
Technical Paper

How to Improve Light Duty Diesel Based on Heavy Duty Diesel Thermodynamic Analysis?

The Diesel engine has now become a vital component of the transport sector, in view of its performance in terms of efficiency and therefore CO2 emissions some 25 % less than a traditional gasoline engine, its main competitor. However, the introduction of more and more stringent regulations on engine emissions (NOx, PM) requires complex after-treatment systems and combustion strategies to decrease pollutant emissions (regeneration strategies, injection strategies, …) with some penalty in fuel consumption. It becomes necessary to find new ways to improve the Diesel efficiency in order to maintain its inherent advantage. In the present work, we are looking for strategies and technologies to reduce Diesel engine fuel consumption. Based on the observation that large Diesel engines have a better efficiency than the smaller ones, a detailed thermodynamic combustion analysis of one Heavy Duty (HD) engine and two Passenger car (PC) engines is performed to understand these differences.
Journal Article

HC-SCR on Silver-Based Catalyst: From Synthetic Gas Bench to Real Use

The challenge for decreasing the emissions of compression ignition engines now remains mainly on NOx control. If the Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction by Urea (Urea-SCR) are very efficient, their extra-cost and management are a major issue for the OEMs. In that context, the selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons (HC-SCR) appears to be an interesting alternative solution, with a more limited NOx conversion efficiency but an easier packaging (diesel fuel as a reductant) and a limited price (reasonable coating cost / no PGM). In the framework of the RedNOx project, a prototype catalyst made of 2% silver on Alumina coated on cordierite was manufactured and tested on a synthetic gas bench. In parallel, an exhaust implementation study has been led to ensure the most suited conditions for injection. Thanks to SGB and simulation results, adapted engine tests have been designed and performed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection of CNG on High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine: Numerical and Experimental Investigation

CNG is one of the most promising alternate fuels for passenger car applications. CNG is affordable, is available worldwide and has good intrinsic properties including high knock resistance and low carbon content. Usually, CNG engines are developed by integrating CNG injectors in the intake manifold of a baseline gasoline engine, thereby remaining gasoline compliant. However, this does not lead to a bi-fuel engine but instead to a compromised solution for both Gasoline and CNG operation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of a direct injection spark ignition engine derived from a diesel engine core and dedicated to CNG combustion. The main modification was the new design of the cylinder head and the piston crown to optimize the combustion velocity thanks to a high tumble level and good mixing. This work was done through computations. First, a 3D model was developed for the CFD simulation of CNG direct injection.