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Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger Matching Method for Reducing Residual Concentration in a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine

In a turbocharged engine, preserving the maximum amount of exhaust pulse energy for turbine operation will result in improved low end torque and engine transient response. However, the exhaust flow entering the turbine is highly unsteady, and the presence of the turbine as a restriction in the exhaust flow results in a higher pressure at the cylinder exhaust ports and consequently poor scavenging. This leads to an increase in the amount of residual gas in the combustion chamber, compared to the naturally-aspirated equivalent, thereby increasing the tendency for engine knock. If the level of residual gas can be reduced and controlled, it should enable the engine to operate at a higher compression ratio, improving its thermal efficiency. This paper presents a method of turbocharger matching for reducing residual gas content in a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

The Sensitivity of Transient Response Prediction of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine to Turbine Map Extrapolation

Mandated pollutant emission levels are shifting light-duty vehicles towards hybrid and electric powertrains. Heavy-duty applications, on the other hand, will continue to rely on internal combustion engines for the foreseeable future. Hence there remain clear environmental and economic reasons to further decrease IC engine emissions. Turbocharged diesels are the mainstay prime mover for heavy-duty vehicles and industrial machines, and transient performance is integral to maximizing productivity, while minimizing work cycle fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. 1D engine simulation tools are commonplace for “virtual” performance development, saving time and cost, and enabling product and emissions legislation cycles to be met. A known limitation however, is the predictive capability of the turbocharger turbine sub-model in these tools.
Technical Paper

Steady-State, Transient and WLTC Drive-Cycle Experimental Performance Comparison between Single-Scroll and Twin-Scroll Turbocharger Turbine

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbine in automotive powertrain has been known for providing better transient performance over conventional single-scroll turbine. This has been accredited to the preservation of exhaust flow energy in the twin-scroll volute. In the current study, the performance comparison between a single and twin-scroll turbine has been made experimentally on a 1.5L passenger car gasoline engine. The uniqueness of the current study is that nearly identical engine hardware has been used for both the single and twin-scroll turbine volutes. This includes the intake and exhaust manifold geometry, turbocharger compressor, turbine rotor and volute scroll A/R variation trend over circumferential location. On top of that, the steady-state engine performance with both the volutes, has also been tuned to have matching brake torque.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Experimental and Meanline Study of an Asymmetric Twin-Scroll Turbine at Full and Unequal and Partial Admission Conditions

The use of twin-scroll turbocharger turbines has gained popularity in recent years. The main reason is its capability of isolating and preserving pulsating exhaust flow from engine cylinders of adjacent firing order, hence enabling more efficient pulse turbocharging. Asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines have been used to realize high pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) using only one scroll while designing the other scroll for optimal scavenging. This research is based on a production asymmetrical turbocharger turbine designed for a heavy duty truck engine of Daimler AG. Even though there are number of studies on symmetrical twin entry scroll performance, a comprehensive modeling tool for asymmetrical twin-scroll turbines is yet to be found. This is particularly true for a meanline model, which is often used during the turbine preliminary design stage.
Technical Paper

Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis of Uncertainties in Turbocharger Compressor Gas Stand Measurements Using Monte Carlo Simulation

Turbocharger hot gas stand testing is routinely carried out in the industry both to provide an experimental assessment of different designs, and to confirm to automotive OEM customers that the product meets the afore-promised levels of performance and durability. The resulting characteristics, or maps, have a hugely significant role in the correct matching of turbocharger options for engine applications. However, since these are generated from experimentally-determined values of pressure, temperature and mass flow, with each sensed variable having an inherent finite error, the uncertainty in these measured components is variously propagated through to the flow and efficiency characteristics - and the significance of this is not well recognized.
Technical Paper

Optimization of an Asymmetric Twin Scroll Volute Turbine under Pulsating Engine Boundary Conditions

Future CO2 emission legislation requires the internal combustion engine to become more efficient than ever. Of great importance is the boosting system enabling down-sizing and down-speeding. However, the thermodynamic coupling of a reciprocating internal combustion engine and a turbocharger poses a great challenge to the turbine as pulsating admission conditions are imposed onto the turbocharger turbine. This paper presents a novel approach to a turbocharger turbine development process and outlines this process using the example of an asymmetric twin scroll turbocharger applied to a heavy duty truck engine application. In a first step, relevant operating points are defined taking into account fuel consumption on reference routes for the target application. These operation points are transferred into transient boundary conditions imposed on the turbine.
Journal Article

Optical Diagnostics Investigation on the Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on Partially Premixed Combustion Stratification and Soot Formation in a Single-Cylinder Optical Compression Ignition Engine

The present work investigates the effect of fuel injection timing on combustion stratification and soot formation in an optically accessible, single cylinder light duty diesel engine. The engine operated under low load and low engine speed conditions, employing a single injection scheme. The conducted experiments considered three different injection timings, which promoted Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) operation. The fuel quantity of the main injection was adjusted to maintain the same Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) value among all cases considered. Findings were analysed via means of pressure trace and apparent heat transfer rate (AHTR) analyses, as well as a series of optical diagnostics techniques, namely flame natural luminosity, CH* and C2* chemiluminescence high-speed imaging, as well as planar Laser Induced Incandescence (pLII).
Technical Paper

Off-Road Diesel Engine Transient Response Improvement by Electrically Assisted Turbocharging

Turbocharged diesel engines are widely used in off-road applications including construction and mining machinery, electric power generation systems, locomotives, marine, petroleum, industrial and agricultural equipment. Such applications contribute significantly to both local air pollution and CO₂ emissions and are subject to increasingly stringent legislation. To improve fuel economy while meeting emissions limits, manufacturers are exploring engine downsizing by increasing engine boost levels. This allows an increase in IMEP without significantly increasing mechanical losses, which results in a higher overall efficiency. However, this can lead to poorer transient engine response primarily due to turbo-lag, which is a major penalty for engines subjected to fast varying loads. To recover transient response, the turbocharger can be electrically assisted by means of a high speed motor/generator.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulations of the Effect of Cold Fuel Temperature on In-Nozzle Flow and Cavitation Using a Model Injector Geometry

In the present study, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed with a 3D model of a step nozzle injector, using n-pentane as the injected fluid, a representative of the high-volatility components in gasoline. The influence of fuel temperature and injection pressure were investigated in conditions that shed light on engine cold-start, a phenomenon prevalent in a number of combustion applications, albeit not extensively studied. The test cases provide an impression of the in-nozzle phase change and the near-nozzle spray structure across different cavitation regimes. Results for the 20oC fuel temperature case (supercavitating regime) depict the formation of a continuous cavitation region that extends to the nozzle outlet. Collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics near the outlet cause a transient entrainment of air from the discharge chamber towards the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Viscosity of Thin Films of Lubricants on Solid Surfaces

This paper describes the development of a thin film rheometer able to measure the viscosity of lubricant films of the order of 200 μm thickness on flat, solid surfaces. The rheometer consists of a small cylinder mounted on a piezo bimorph which is divided electrically into two halves. When an AC voltage is applied to the one half of the piezo it causes the flat surface of the cylinder to oscillate in its own plane with an amplitude of a few microns. This motion produces an AC output from the other half of the piezo. The flat face of the cylinder is held parallel to an oily test surface and the latter is supported on a micrometer stage so that the gap between the two surfaces can be adjusted. As the gap is narrowed the oil film dampens the sinusoidal motion of the cylinder and the extent of this damping can be used to determine the viscosity of the oil film between the surfaces.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Influence of Different Asperity Contact Models on the Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Conrod Small-End/Piston Pin Coupling

Bearings represent one of the main causes of friction losses in internal combustion engines, and their lubrication performance has a crucial influence on the operating condition of the engine. In particular, the conrod small-end bearing is one of the most critical engine parts from a tribological point of view since limited contact surfaces have to support high inertial and combustion forces. In this contribution an analysis is performed of the tribological behavior of the lubricated contact between the piston pin and the conrod small-end of a high performance motorbike engine. A mass-conserving algorithm is employed to solve the Reynolds equation based on a complementarity formulation of the cavitation problem. The analysis of the asperity contact problem is addressed in detail. A comparison between two different approaches is presented, the former based on the standard Greenwood/Tripp theory and the latter based on a complementarity formulation of the asperity contact problem.
Journal Article

Injector Fouling and Its Impact on Engine Emissions and Spray Characteristics in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

In Gasoline Direct Injection engines, direct exposure of the injector to the flame can cause combustion products to accumulate on the nozzle, which can result in increased particulate emissions. This research observes the impact of injector fouling on particulate emissions and the associated injector spray pattern and shows how both can be reversed by utilising fuel detergency. For this purpose multi-hole injectors were deliberately fouled in a four-cylinder test engine with two different base fuels. During a four hour injector fouling cycle particulate numbers (PN) increased by up to two orders of magnitude. The drift could be reversed by switching to a fuel blend that contained a detergent additive. In addition, it was possible to completely avoid any PN increase, when the detergent containing fuel was used from the beginning of the test. Microscopy showed that increased injector fouling coincided with increased particulate emissions.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Tumble Flow Characteristics and Implications for Fuel/Air Mixing in Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

The present investigation is centered around two motored research gasoline direct-injection engines, equipped with a pressure-swirl atomizer closely spaced with the centrally located spark plug. At first a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system was employed to characterize the in-cylinder airflow in one of the engines. A comparison was made to velocity profiles in a port-fuel injected engine of similar design characteristics, which revealed a different decay mechanism of the large-scale flow structure and associated higher turbulence levels in the pentroof of the cylinder. Second, images of the hollow cone fuel spray generated by the direct injector were recorded for three different injection timings in order to discuss the temporal and spatial development of the liquid phase in the engine cylinder in terms of its interaction with the gas motion.
Technical Paper

Improving Energy Extraction from Pulsating Exhaust Flow by Active Operation of a Turbocharger Turbine

A mixed flow turbine with pivoting nozzle vanes was designed and tested to actively adapt to the pulsating exhaust flow. The turbine was tested at equivalent speed of 48000 rpm with inlet flow pulsation of 40Hz and 60Hz, which corresponds to a 4-stroke diesel engine speed of 1600 rpm and 2400 rpm respectively. The nozzle vane operating schedules for each pulse period are evaluated experimentally in two general modes; natural opening and closing of the vanes due to the pulsating flow and the forced sinusoidal oscillation of the vanes to match the incoming pulsating flow. The turbine energy extraction as well as efficiency is compared for the two modes to formulate its effectiveness.
Journal Article

Experimental Measurement of Roughness Data and Evaluation of Greenwood/Tripp Parameters for the Elastohydrodynamic Analysis of a Conrod Small-End/Piston Pin Coupling

For the investigation of the tribological behavior of lubricated contacts, the choice and the calibration of the adopted asperity contact model is fundamental, in order to properly mimic the mixed lubrication conditions. The Greenwood/Tripp model is extensively adopted by the commercial software commonly employed to simulate lubricated contacts. This model, based on a statistic evaluation of the number of asperities in contact and on the Hertzian contact theory, has the advantage of introducing a simple relationship between oil film thickness and asperity contact pressure, considerably reducing the simulation time. However, in order to calibrate the model, some non-standard roughness parameters are required, that are not available from commercial roughness measuring equipment. Standard values, based on some limited experiences, are typically used, and a limited literature can be found focusing on how to evaluate them, thus reducing the predictivity of the model.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Internal Flow Field of a Model Gasoline Injector Using Micro-Particle Image Velocimetry

The spray characteristics of a gasoline injector depend not only on the physics of atomization of the liquid jet on exit from the nozzle plate but also on the level of turbulence generated by the internal flow, upstream of the nozzle plate, as well as on whether cavitation arises. Measurement of the internal flow field of an injector can thus provide useful information and can assist the evaluation of the accuracy of computer predictions of the flow and associated cavitation. Information about the flow field upstream of nozzle exits is, however, rare and this forms the background to this work. Two-Dimensional Micro Particle Imaging Velocimetry (μPIV) was employed to measure the internal flow field in planes parallel to a plane of symmetry of the injector, downstream of the needle valve centring boss of a 10:1 super-scale transparent model of an 8-nozzle gasoline injector, with exit model-nozzle diameters of 2mm and a fixed model-needle lift of 0.8mm.
Technical Paper

Experimental Efficiency Characterization of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger

Electrically assisted turbochargers consist of standard turbochargers modified to accommodate an electric motor/generator within the bearing housing. Those devices improve engine transient response and low end torque by increasing the power delivered to the compressor. This allows a larger degree of engine down-sizing and down-speeding as well as a more efficient turbocharger to engine match, which translates in lower fuel consumption. In addition, the electric machine can be operated in generating mode during steady state engine running conditions to extract a larger fraction of the exhaust energy. Electric turbocharger assistance is therefore a key technology for the reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. In this paper an electrically assisted turbocharger, designed to be applied to non-road medium duty diesel engines, is tested to obtain the turbine and electrical machine efficiency characteristics.
Technical Paper

Evaluation Between Engine Stop/Start and Cylinder Deactivation Technologies Under Southeast Asia Urban Driving Condition

Engine stop/start and cylinder deactivation are increasingly in use to improve fuel consumption of internal combustion engine in passenger cars. The stop/start technology switches off the engine to whenever the vehicle is at a stand-still, typically in a highly-congested area of an urban driving. The inherent issue with the implementation of stop/start technology in Southeast Asia, with tropical climate such as Malaysia, is the constant demand for the air-conditioning system. This inevitably reduces the duration of engine switch-off when the vehicle at stop and consequently nullifying the benefit of the stop/start system. On the other hand, cylinder deactivation technology improves the fuel consumption at certain conditions during low to medium vehicle speeds, when the engine is at part load operation only. This study evaluates the fuel economy benefit between the stop/start and cylinder deactivation technologies for the actual Kuala Lumpur urban driving conditions in Malaysia.
Technical Paper

Engine Operational Benefits with Cylinder Deactivation in Malaysian Urban Driving Conditions

Cylinder deactivation has been utilized by vehicle manufacturers since the 80's to improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Cylinder deactivation is achieved by cutting off fuel supply and ignition in some of the engine cylinders, while their inlet and outlet valves are fully closed. The vehicle demand during cylinder deactivation is sustained by only the firing cylinders, hence increasing their indicated power. Conventionally, half the number of cylinders are shut at certain driving conditions, which normally at the lower demand regime. An optimal strategy will ensure cylinder deactivation contributes to the fuel saving without compromising the vehicle drivability. Cylinder deactivation has been documented to generally improve fuel consumption between 6 to 25 %, depending on the type-approval test drive cycle. However, type-approval test has been reported to differ from the “real-world” fuel consumption values.