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Technical Paper

Use of Water-Butanol Blends in a Turbocharged Common Rail Dual Fuel Engine for Enhanced Performance and Reduce Smoke Levels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0251
Experiments were conducted on a turbocharged three cylinder automotive common rail diesel engine with port injection of butanol. This dual fuel engine was run with neat butanol and blends of water and butanol (up to 20% water by mass). Experiments were performed at a constant speed of 1800 rpm and a brake mean effective pressure of 11.8 bar (full load) at varying butanol to diesel energy share values while diesel was either injected as a single pulse or as twin pulses (Main plus Post). Open engine controllers were used for varying the injection parameters of diesel and butanol. Water butanol blends improved the brake thermal efficiency by a small extent because of better combustion phasing as compared to butanol without water. When the butanol to diesel energy share was high, auto-ignition of butanol occurred before the injection of diesel. This lowered the ignition delay of diesel and hence elevated the smoke level.
Technical Paper

Unregulated and Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Fuelled CRDI SUV Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0889
Use of biodiesel from non-edible vegetable oil as an alternative fuel to mineral diesel is attractive economically and environmentally. Diesel engines emit several harmful gaseous emissions and some of them are regulated worldwide, while countless others are not regulated. These unregulated species are associated with severe health hazards. Karanja biodiesel is a popular alternate fuel in South Asia and various governments are considering its large-scale implementation. Therefore it is important to study the possible adverse impact of this new alternate fuel. In this study, unregulated and regulated emissions were measured at varying engine speeds (1500, 2500 and 3500 rpm) for various engine loads (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% rated load) using 20% Karanja biodiesel blend (KB20) and diesel in a 4-cylinder 2.2L common rail direct injection (CRDI) sports utility vehicle (SUV) engine.
Technical Paper

Transient Spray Characteristics of Air Assisted Fuel Injection

2015-04-14
2015-01-0920
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) technology is already in use in four wheeler applications owing to the additional benefits in terms of better combustion and fuel economy. The air-assisted in-cylinder injection is the emerging technology for gasoline engines which works with low pressure injection systems unlike gasoline direct injection (GDI) system. GDI systems use high pressure fuel injection, which provides better combustion and reduced fuel consumption. It envisages small droplet size and low penetration rate which will reduce wall wetting and hydrocarbon emissions. This study is concerned with a CFD analysis of an air-assisted injection system to evaluate mixture spray characteristics. For the analysis, the air injector fitted onto a constant volume chamber (CVC) maintained at uniform pressure is considered. The analysis is carried out for various CVC pressures, mixture injection durations and fuel quantities so as to understand the effect on mixture spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Transient Fatigue Analysis of Exhaust System Mounting Brackets for Commercial Vehicle - Correlation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1333
In commercial vehicles, exhaust system is normally mounted on frame side members (FSM) using hanger brackets. These exhaust system hanger brackets are tested either as part of full vehicle durability testing or as a subsystem in a rig testing. During initial phases of product development cycle, the hanger brackets are validated for their durability in rig level testing using time domain signals acquired from mule vehicle. These signals are then used in uni-axial, bi-axial or tri-axial rig facilities based on their severity and the availability of test rigs. This paper depicts the simulation method employed to replicate the bi-directional rig testing through modal transient analysis. Finite Element Method (FEM) is applied for numerical analysis of exhaust system assembly using MSC/Nastran software with the inclusion of rubber isolator modeling, meshing guidelines etc. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results are in good agreement with rig level test results.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry for Flow Analysis in a Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0599
Better understanding of flow phenomena inside the combustion chamber of a diesel engine and accurate measurement of flow parameters is necessary for engine optimization i.e. enhancing power output, fuel economy improvement and emissions control. Airflow structures developed inside the engine combustion chamber significantly influence the air-fuel mixing. In this study, in-cylinder air flow characteristics of a motored, four-valve diesel engine were investigated using time-resolved high-speed Tomographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). Single cylinder optical engine provides full optical access of combustion chamber through a transparent cylinder and flat transparent piston top. Experiments were performed in different vertical planes at different engine speeds during the intake and compression stroke under motoring condition. For visualization of air flow pattern, graphite particles were used for flow seeding.
Technical Paper

Tomographic PIV Evaluation of In-Cylinder Flow Evolution and Effect of Engine Speed

2016-04-05
2016-01-0638
In this study, 3D air-flow-field evolution in a single cylinder optical research engine was determined using tomographic particle imaging velocimetry (TPIV) at different engine speeds. Two directional projections of captured flow-field were pre-processed to reconstruct the 3D flow-field by using the MART (multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique) algorithm. Ensemble average flow pattern was used to investigate the air-flow behavior inside the combustion chamber during the intake and compression strokes of an engine cycle. In-cylinder air-flow characteristics were significantly affected by the engine speed. Experimental results showed that high velocities generated during the first half of the intake stroke dissipated in later stages of the intake stroke. In-cylinder flow visualization indicated that large part of flow energy dissipated during the intake stroke and energy dissipation was the maximum near the end of the intake stroke.
Technical Paper

Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on Current Generation Pd/Rh Catalytic Converter

2002-03-04
2002-01-0905
Performance of a Current generation catalytic converter using Pd/Rh (10:1) as binary catalyst impeded on an ultra thin ceramic substrate and alumina wash coat is modeled for performance prediction and parametric optimization. Kinetic rates for the catalyst are reduced after conducting series of experiments on a passenger car engine. A new concept in mass transfer coefficient is introduced for improving accuracy of the model prediction. In order to take care of the precious metal resources and to become independent of precious metal price fluctuation, a new pattern of loading of precious metal is suggested for optimum performance and metal savings about 46 percent was observed. Experimental investigations were carried out to validate the established kinetic rates over a wide range operation of the engine and for the model validation. Satisfactory agreements are observed for the model prediction and experimental results.
Technical Paper

The Influence of High-Octane Fuel Blends on the Performance of a Two-Stroke SI Engine with Knock-Limited-Compression Ratio

1994-10-01
941863
The use of alcohol-gasoline blends enables the favorable features of alcohols to be utilized in spark ignition (SI) engines while avoiding the shortcomings of their application as straight fuels. Eucalyptus and orange oils possess high octane values and are also good potential alternative fuels for SI engines. The high octane value of these fuels can enhance the octane value of the fuel when it is blended with low-octane gasoline. In the present work, 20 percent by volume of orange oil, eucalyptus oil, methanol and ethanol were blended separately with gasoline, and the performance, combustion and exhaust emission characteristics were evaluated at two different compression ratios. The phase separation problems arising from the alcohol-gasoline blends were minimized by adding eucalyptus oil as a co-solvent. Test results indicate that the compression ratio can be raised from 7.4 to 9 without any detrimental effect, due to the higher octane rating of the fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Studies on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a CI Engine Operating on Diesel and Diesel Biodiesel Blends at Different Injection Pressures and Injection Timings

2007-04-16
2007-01-0613
The effect of variation in injection pressure and Injection timing on the performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a direct injection, naturally aspirated Diesel engine operating on Diesel and Diesel-Biodiesel Blends were studied. A three-way factorial design consisting of four levels of injection pressure (150,210, 265,320 bar), four levels of injection timing (19° btdc, 21.5° btdc, 26° btdc, and 30.5° btdc) and five different fuel types (D100, B10, B20, B40, and B60) were employed in this test. The experimental analysis shows that when operating with Linseed Oil Methyl Ester-Diesel blends, we could increase the injection pressure by about 25% over the normal value of 20MPa. The engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of the engine operating on the ester fuels at advanced injection timing were better than when operating at increased injection pressure.
Technical Paper

Steer Assistance Control for Improved Vehicle Response

2014-04-01
2014-01-0109
Advanced research in ABS (Anti-lock Braking System), traction control, electronic LSD's (Limited Slip Differential) and electrical powertrains have led to an architecture development which can be used to provide a controlled yaw moment to stabilize a vehicle. A steer assistance mechanism that uses the same architecture and aims at improving the vehicle response to the driver steering inputs is proposed. In this paper a feed-forward approach where the steering wheel angle is used as the main input is developed. An optimal control system is designed to improve vehicle response to steering input while minimizing the H2 performance of the body slip angle. The control strategy developed was simulated on a 14 DOF full vehicle model to analyze the response and handling performance.
Technical Paper

Spark-Assisted Alcohol Operation in a Low Heat Rejection Engine

1995-02-01
950059
This work demonstrates how the performance of a standard spark-assisted alcohol engine can be improved by using the Low Heat Rejection (LHR ) concept. The improved combustion is attained by better using the greater heat energy in the combustion chamber of a LHR engine - in this case for the faster vaporisation and better mixing of the alcohol fuels. For this program the LHR engine used has a single cylinder diesel and alcohols sued as sole fuels were ethanol and methanol. For spark assistance an extended electrode spark plug was used and location and projection were optimised for best results. These configurations were evaluated for performance and emissions with and without LHR implementation. The results show that the engine with LHR, ethanol fuel and spark assistance has the highest brake thermal efficiency with the lowest emissions.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Producer Gas Engine and Dedicated Compressed Natural Gas Engine - Technology Development and Experimental Performance Optimisation

1999-10-25
1999-01-3515
In the present study, a 17 kW, stationary, direct- injection diesel engine has been converted to operate it as a gas engine using producer-gas and compressed natural gas (CNG) as the fuels on two different operational modes called SIPGE (Spark Ignition Producer Gas Engine) and DCNGE (Dedicated Compressed Natural Gas Engine). The engine before conversion, was run on two other modes of operation, namely, diesel mode using only diesel and producer-gas-diesel-dual-fuel mode with diesel used for pilot ignition. The base data generated on diesel mode was used for performance comparison under other modes to ascertain the fuel flexibility. A technology development and optimisation followed by performance confirmation are the three features of this study. The exercise of conversion to SIPGE is a success since comparable power and efficiency could be developed. DCNGE operation also yielded comparable power with higher efficiency, which establishes the fuel flexibility of the converted machine.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Surface Densification of PM Gears

1999-03-01
1999-01-0334
This paper deals with simulation studies on surface densification of PM gears by rolling process using finite element method. The PM gear is considered as a porous continuum and analysis is performed using constitutive relations based on Gurson model for porous materials. The influence of various parameters such as initial position of mating gears, braking torque applied, friction between mating surfaces and roll stock allowance on the process have been studied. The density obtained by the process is highly influenced by the braking torque applied. The results presented provide a better understanding of the PM gear rolling process.
Technical Paper

Road Performance of a Diesel Vehicle with Supplementary Carburation of Alcohol

1981-02-01
810347
A novel Air-Alcohol INDUCTOR with an inherent flexibility to tailor the alcohol flow rate, has been developed for a multi-cylinder, variable-speed, vehicular Diesel engine to enable operation in the Alcohol-Diesel bi-fuel mode. Tests have been carried out on the dynamometer over the whole speed range of the engine. Also road tests have been carried out under constant vehicular speed conditions. Upto 48% Diesel substitution was achieved on road without reduction in thermal efficiency. Laboratory tests indicate lower exhaust temperatures and lower smoke intensities than in the diesel mode.
Technical Paper

Reducing NO in a Biodiesel Fueled Compression Ignition Engine - An Experimental Study

2015-09-06
2015-24-2483
The replacement of fossil diesel with neat biodiesel in a compression ignition engine has advantage in lowering unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. However, the injection advance experienced with biodiesel fuel with respect to diesel injection setting increases oxides of nitrogen emission. In this study, the biodiesel-NO control is attempted using charge and fuel modification strategies with retarded injection timing. The experiments are performed at maximum torque speed and higher loads viz. from 60% up to full load conditions maintaining same power between diesel and biodiesel while retarding the timing of injection by 3 deg. crank angle. The charge and fuel modifications are done by recycling 5% by volume of exhaust gas to the fresh charge and 10% by volume of methanol to Karanja biodiesel.
Technical Paper

Performance of Thin-Ceramic-Coated Combustion Chamber with Gasoline and Methanol as Fuels in a Two-Stroke SI Engine

1994-10-01
941911
The performance of a conventional, carbureted, two-stroke spark-ignition (SI) engine can be improved by providing moderate thermal insulation in the combustion chamber. This will help to improve the vaporization characteristics in particular at part load and medium loads with gasoline fuel and high-latent-heat fuels such as methanol. In the present investigation, the combustion chamber surface was coated with a 0.5-mm thickness of partially stabilized zirconia, and experiments were carried out in a single-cylinder, two-stroke SI engine with gasoline and methanol as fuels. Test results indicate that with gasoline as a fuel, the thin ceramic-coated combustion chamber improves the part load to medium load operation considerably, but it affects the performance at higher speeds and at higher loads to the extent of knock and loss of brake power by about 18%. However, with methanol as a fuel, the performance is better under most of the operating range and free from knock.
Technical Paper

Parametric Investigations on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst in a Light Duty Diesel Engine - An Experimental and Modelling Study

2019-01-09
2019-26-0299
In order to comply with the stringent future emission mandates of automotive diesel engines it is essential to deploy a suitable combination of after treatment devices like diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), diesel particulate filter (DPF) and DeNox converter (Lean NOx Trap (LNT) or Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) system). Since arriving at a suitable strategy through experiments will involve deploying a lot of resources, development of well-tuned simulation models that can reduce time and cost is important. In the first phase of this study experiments were conducted on a single cylinder light duty diesel engine fitted with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) at thirteen steady state mode points identified in the NEDC (New European Driving cycle) cycle. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures, exhaust emission concentrations and catalyst bed temperature were measured. A one dimensional simulation model was developed in the commercial software AVL BOOST.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Strength and Ductility of Al-6061 Alloy by Various Post-Rolling Ageing Treatments

2014-04-28
2014-28-0022
The effect of different cold- rolling and cryo-rolling routes on the strength and ductility of Al-6061 alloy was thoroughly investigated. Rolling decreased the grain size and increased the strength according to the Hall-Petch relationship. However subjecting the samples to ageing at different temperatures and for different time period increased the strength and improved the ductility. The ductility was improved due to the rearrangement and even decrease in dislocation density due to recovery and recrystallization during ageing while the strength was maintained due to ageing. Evolution of microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary hardness measurements coupled with tensile tests indicate the improvement of both yield strength and ductility. The disparity in ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and the elongation to failure with different ageing temperatures and for different time period is determined and discussed.
Technical Paper

Non-Reacting and Reacting Flow Analysis in an Aero-Engine Gas Turbine Combustor Using CFD

2007-04-16
2007-01-0916
A gas turbine combustion system is an embodiment of all complexities that engineering equipment can have. The flow is three dimensional, swirling, turbulent, two phase and reacting. The design and development of combustors, until recent past, was an art than science. If one takes the route of development through experiments, it is quite time consuming and costly. Compared to the other two components viz., compressor and turbine, the combustion system is not yet completely amenable to mathematical analysis. A gas turbine combustor is both geometrically and fluid dynamically quite complex. The major challenge a combustion engineer faces is the space constraint. As the combustion chamber is sandwiched between compressor and turbine there is a limitation on the available space. The critical design aspect is in facing the aerodynamic challenges with minimum pressure drop. Accurate mathematical analysis of such a system is next to impossible.
Technical Paper

NOx Reduction in SI Engine Exhaust Using Selective Catalytic Reduction Technique

1998-02-23
980935
Copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite with urea infusion was tested for nitrogen oxide (NOx)conversion efficiency in this study. Temperature datapoints were obtained to arrive at peak activation temperatures. Variation of the air/fuel ratio showed the widening of the λ-window(the range of air-fuel ratios over which the NOx conversion efficiency is considerable); a maximum of 62% NOx conversion efficiency was obtained in the lean-burn range. Effects of space velocity variations were also observed. In order to minimise the deactivation of zeolite caused by water, ammonium carbonate and ammonium sulphate were deposited on the copper ion-exchanged X-zeolite and the corresponding NOx conversion efficiencies measured. Ammonia slip (leakage of unreacted ammonia), a prospective pollution hazard, was observed to be more in case of urea infusion than ammonium salt deposition at higher temperatures.
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