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Technical Paper

Using Intake Valve Deposit Cleanup Testing as a Combustion Chamber Deposit Discriminator

1998-10-19
982714
Carefully controlled intake valve deposit (IVD) cleanup testing is found to be an effective method for differentiating the effect of the deposit control additives on combustion chamber deposits (CCD). The IVD buildup procedure produces a consistent initial level of CCD that the cleanup additive, the additive of interest, continues to build on until the end of the cleanup test. This “end of cleanup” CCD is found to be as repeatable and differentiable a measurement as tests run under the more common “keep clean” type operation. While IVD cleanup testing induces a mid-test disturbance in the form of the end of buildup measurement, it aligns well with two key CCD protocols in terms of the higher additive treat rates used and the extended total test length. In an analysis of results from IVD cleanup tests run using four different engine/vehicle procedures on seven different additives, several findings stood out.
Technical Paper

Using Cloud Point Depressants Opportunistically To Reduce No.2 Diesel Fuel Cloud Point Giveaway

2001-05-07
2001-01-1927
Diesel fuel is a blend of various middle distillate components separated at the refinery. The composition and characteristics of the diesel fuel blend changes daily if not hourly because of normal process variation, changing refinery processing conditions, changing crude oil diet or changing diesel fuel and kerosene market conditions. Regardless of the situation going on at the refinery or the market, the resultant diesel fuel must consistently meet established cloud point specifications. To consistently meet the cloud point specifications, refiners are forced to blend their diesel fuels in such a way that the resultant blend is always on the low side of the cloud point specification even when the refining process adversely changes the fuel characteristics. This practice has the effect of producing several degrees of cloud point “giveaway” when the refinery is not experiencing adverse swings in product quality.
Technical Paper

Use of a Laboratory Scale Test to Study Internal Diesel Injector Deposits

2016-10-17
2016-01-2247
Internal Diesel Injector Deposits (IDID) in compression ignition engines have been widely studied in the past few years. Published results indicate that commonly observed IDID chemistries may be replicated using full-scale engine tests and subsequently fuel injection equipment (FIE) operated on non-fired electric motor driven test stands. Such processes are costly, complex and by nature can be difficult to repeat. The next logical simplification is to replicate IDID formation using laboratory-scale apparatus that recreate the appropriate chemical reaction process under well controlled steady state conditions. This approach is made more feasible by the fact that IDID, unlike nozzle hole coking, are not directly exposed to gasses involved in the combustion process. The present study uses an instrument designed to measure thermal oxidation stability of aviation turbine fuels to successfully replicate the deposit chemistries observed in full-scale FIE.
Journal Article

Unique Needs of Motorcycle and Scooter Lubricants and Proposed Solutions for More Effective Performance Evaluation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0708
The operating conditions of a typical motorcycle are considerably different than those of a typical passenger car and thus require an oil capable of handling the unique demands. One primary difference, wet clutch lubrication, is already addressed by the current JASO four-stroke motorcycle engine oil specification (JASO T 903:2011). Another challenge for the oil is gear box lubrication, which may be addressed in part with the addition of a gear protection test in a future revision to the JASO specification. A third major difference between a motorcycle oil and passenger car oil is the more severe conditions an oil is subjected to within a motorcycle engine, due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities. Scooters, utilizing a transmission not lubricated by the crankcase oil, also place higher demands on an engine oil, once again due to higher temperatures, engine speeds and power densities.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening: Rotational Rheology Techniques to Determine Viscosity and Soot Structure in Peugeot XUD-11 BTE Drain Oils

2001-05-07
2001-01-1967
The Association des Constructeurs Européen d'Automobiles (ACEA) light duty diesel engine specifications requires a kinematic viscosity measurement technique for Peugeot XUD-11 BTE drain oils. This viscosity measurement is used to define the medium temperature dispersivity of soot in the drain oil.(1) This paper discusses the use of rotational rheology methods to measure the Newtonian character of XUD-11 drain oils. The calculation of the rate index using the Hershel Bulkley model indicates the level of non-Newtonian behavior of the drain oil and directly reflects the level of soot dispersion or agglomeration. This study shows that the more non-Newtonian the drain oil the greater the difference between kinematic and rotational viscosity measurements Oscillation (dynamic) rheological techniques are used to characterize build up of soot structure.
Technical Paper

Understanding Soot Mediated Oil Thickening Part 6: Base Oil Effects

1998-10-19
982665
One of the key functions of lubricating oil additives in diesel engines is to control oil thickening caused by soot accumulation. Over the last several years, it has become apparent that the composition of the base oil used within the lubricant plays an extremely important role in the oil thickening phenomenon. In particular, oil thickening observed in the Mack T-8 test is significantly affected by the aromatic content of the base oil. We have found that the Mack T-8 thickening phenomenon is associated with high electrical activity, i.e., engine drain oils which exhibit high levels of viscosity increase show significantly higher conductivities. These findings suggest that electrical interactions are involved in soot-induced oil thickening.
Technical Paper

The Use of Life Cycle Assessment with Crankcase Lubricants to Yield Maximum Environmental Benefit – Case Study of Residual Chlorine in Lubricant

2008-10-06
2008-01-2376
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a methodology used to determine quantitatively the environmental impacts of a range of options. The environmental community has used LCA to study all of the impacts of a product over its life cycle. This analysis can help to prevent instances where a greater degree of environmental harm results when changes are made to products based on consideration of impacts in only part of the life cycle. This study applies the methodology to engine lubricants, and in particular chlorine limits in engine lubricant specifications. Concern that chlorine in lubricants might contribute to emissions from vehicle exhausts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), collectively called PCDD/F, led to the introduction of chlorine limits in lubricant specifications. No direct evidence was available linking chlorine in lubricants to PCDD/F formation, but precautionary principles were used to set lubricant chlorine limits.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3.Part 2. Valve Train Wear Response to Formulation Variables

1998-10-19
982626
The work presented here is the second of two papers investigating the KA24E engine test. The first paper characterized the KA24E engine in terms of the physical and chemical operating environment it presents to lubricants. The authors investigated oil degradation and wear mechanisms, and examined the differences between the KA24E and the Sequence VE engine tests. It was shown that while the KA24E does not degrade the lubricant to the extent that occurs in the Sequence VE, wear could be a serious problem if oils are poorly formulated. This second paper examines the wear response of the KA24E to formulation variables. A statistically designed matrix demonstrated that the KA24E is sensitive to levels of secondary zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDP), dispersant and calcium sulfonate detergent. This matrix also showed that the KA24E appears to have good repeatability for well formulated oils and is a reasonable replacement for the wear component of the Sequence VE.
Technical Paper

The KA24E Engine Test for ILSAC GF-3 Part 1: Engine Design, Operating Conditions and Wear Mechanisms

1998-10-19
982625
The Nissan KA24E engine test is designated to replace the Ford Sequence VE engine test as the low temperature valve train wear requirement for ILSAC (International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee) GF-3. The KA24E (recently designated the Sequence IV A) represents much of the current world-wide material and design technology while retaining the sliding cam/follower contact found in earlier engine designs. The work presented here is the first of two reports. In this first report, the physical and chemical environment the KA24E engine presents a lubricant is characterized and compared to those of the Sequence VE engine. Valve train materials and wear modes are investigated and described. Although chemical analysis of drain oils indicate the KA24E procedure does not degrade the lubricant to the extent seen in the Sequence VE test, valve train wear appears to proceed in a similar manner in both tests.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Passenger Car Motor Oils on Emissions Performance

2003-05-19
2003-01-1988
Throughout the evolution of the automobile, passenger car motor oils have been developed to address issues of wear, corrosion, deposit formation, friction, and viscosity stability. As a result, the internal combustion engines are now developed with the expectation that the lubricants to be used in them will deliver certain performance attributes. Metallurgies, clearances, and built-in stresses are all chosen with certain expectations from the lubricant. A family of chemicals that has been universally used in formulating passenger car motor oils is zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). ZDPs are extremely effective at protecting highly stressed valve train components against wear failure, especially in engine designs with a sliding contact between cams and followers. While ZDPs' benefits on wear control are universally accepted, ZDPs have been identified as the source of phosphorus, which deactivates noble metal aftertreatment systems.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Lubricant and Fuel Derived Sulfur Species on Efficiency and Durability of Diesel NOx Adsorbers

2004-10-25
2004-01-3011
Global emission legislations for diesel engines are becoming increasingly stringent. While the exhaust gas composition requirements for prior iterations of emission legislation could be met with improvements in the engine's combustion process, the next issue of European, North American and Japanese emission limits greater than 2005 will require more rigorous measures, mainly employment of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems. As a result, many American diesel OEMs are considering NOx adsorbers as a means to achieve 2007+ emission standards. Since the efficacy of a NOx adsorber over its lifetime is significantly affected by sulfur (“sulfur poisoning”), forthcoming reductions in diesel fuel sulfur (down to 15 ppm), have raised industry concerns regarding compatibility and possible poisoning effects of sulfur from the lubricant.
Journal Article

The Effect of Viscosity Index on the Efficiency of Transmission Lubricants

2009-11-02
2009-01-2632
The world is firmly focused on reducing energy consumption and on increasingly stringent regulations on CO2 emissions. Examples of regulatory changes include the new United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) fuel economy test procedures which were required beginning with the 2008 model year for vehicles sold in the US market. These test procedures include testing at higher speeds, more aggressive acceleration and deceleration, and hot-weather and cold-temperature testing. These revised procedures are intended to provide an estimate that more accurately reflects what consumers will experience under real world driving conditions. The U.S.
Journal Article

The Effect of Low Viscosity Oil on the Wear, Friction and Fuel Consumption of a Heavy Duty Truck Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0331
This paper describes the results of a series of tests on a heavy-duty truck diesel engine using conventional and low viscosity lubricants. The objectives were to explore the impact of reducing lubricant viscosity on wear, friction and fuel consumption. The radiotracing Thin Layer Activation method was used to make on-line measurements of wear at the cylinder liner, top piston ring, connecting rod small end bush and intake cam lobe. The engine was operated under a wide range of conditions (load, speed and temperature) and with lubricants of several different viscosity grades. Results indicate the relationship between lubricant viscosity and wear at four critical locations. Wear at other locations was assessed by analysis of wear metals and post test inspection. The fuel consumption was then measured on the same engine with the same lubricants. Results indicate the relationship between oil viscosity and fuel consumption under a wide range of operating conditions.
Technical Paper

The Development of CVT Fluids with Higher Friction Coefficients

2003-05-19
2003-01-1978
The development of new transmission designs continues to affect the vehicle market. Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) remain one of the more recent designs that impact the vehicle market. A desire for high belt-pulley capacity has driven studies concentrating on metal-on-metal (M/M) friction as a function of the CVT fluid. This paper describes the statistical techniques used to optimize the fluid friction as a function of additive components in a bench-scale, three-element test rig.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel and Ethanol Blends Stability

2003-10-27
2003-01-3191
Characteristics of E diesel, a fuel blend of diesel fuel and ethanol, are considered in a matrix of tests. One characteristic of particular concern and a subject of this investigation is that of stability. Methods to evaluate stability are looked at and compared in light of the potential for distillate and ethanol to separate under certain conditions. The quality of the fuel blend is enhanced by the use of enabling additives to ensure stability which necessitates development of a standard for assessment of the quality of stability. The properties of various base diesel fuels and their influence on stability are also studied. Other key characteristics are evaluated including viscosity, pour point, and oxidative stability.
Technical Paper

Soot Related Viscosity Increase - A Comparison of the Mack T-11 Engine Test to Field Performance

2004-10-25
2004-01-3009
Soot related viscosity increase has been reported as a field issue in some diesel engines and this led to the development of the T-11 engine test, incorporated in the Mack EO-N Premium Plus 03 specification (014 GS 12037). This study compares T-11 laboratory engine tests and vehicle field tests and seeks to confirm the correlation between them. The findings are that the T-11 test provides an effective screening tool to investigate soot related viscosity increase, and the severity of the engine test limits gives a substantial margin of safety compared to the field. A complementary study was conducted in conjunction with this work that focuses on the successful application of electrochemical sensor technology to diagnose soot content and soot related viscosity increase. This will be the subject of a separate paper.
Technical Paper

Shifting from Automatic to Continuously Variable Transmissions: A Look at Fluid Technology Requirements

1999-10-25
1999-01-3614
New technologies are being commercialized across the automotive industry to address demands for improved fuel economy, emissions reductions, and improved customer satisfaction. Push-belt continuously variable transmissions (b-CVTs) are beginning to command a significant percentage of the market now dominated by manual and conventional automatic transmissions. In addition, automobile manufacturers plan to introduce the first traction drive toroidal-CVTs to the market place within the next five years. A review of the relative benefits and limitations of each of these automatic transmissions exists in the literature. In this paper we consider how the performance requirements of each of these automatic transmission systems impact automatic transmission fluid technology. The physical characteristics and screen test performance of two commercial ATFs, a b-CVTF, and two traction fluids were examined.
Technical Paper

Review of Exhaust Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines Operating on E Diesel Fuel Blends

2003-10-27
2003-01-3283
Recently, research and testing of oxygenated diesel fuels has increased, particularly in the area of exhaust emissions. Included among the oxygenated diesel fuels are blends of diesel fuel with ethanol, or E diesel fuels. Exhaust emissions testing of E diesel fuel has been conducted by a variety of test laboratories under various conditions of engine type and operating conditions. This work reviews the existing public data from previous exhaust emissions testing on E diesel fuel and includes new testing performed in engines of varied design. Emissions data compares E diesel fuel with normal diesel fuel under conditions of different engine speeds, different engine loads and different engine designs. Variations in performance under these various conditions are observed and discussed with some potential explanations suggested.
Technical Paper

Reducing Deposits in a DISI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2660
Direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engine technology offers tremendous potential advantages in fuel savings and is likely to command a progressively increasing share of the European passenger vehicle market in the future. A concern is its propensity to form deposits on the inlet valve. In extreme cases, these deposits can lead to poor drivability and deteriorating emission performance. This inlet valve deposit build up is a well-known phenomenon in DISI engines since even additised fuel cannot wash over the back of intake valves to keep them clean. Two lubricants and two fuels were tested in a four car matrix. One of the lubricants was a fluid specifically developed by Lubrizol for DISI technology; the other was a baseline oil meeting Ford lubricants requirements and was qualified to ACEA A1/B1/ ILSAC GF2 performance level. Similarly, a baseline fuel was tested against an additised system.
Technical Paper

Polymer Additives as Mist Suppressants in Metalworking Fluids Part IIa: Preliminary Laboratory and Plant Studies - Water Soluble Fluids

1998-02-23
980097
Mist generated from water-soluble fluids used in machining operations represents a potentially significant contribution to worker exposure to airborne particles. Part I of this study [1], discussed polymer additives as mist suppressants for straight mineral oil metalworking fluids (MWF), which have been successfully employed at several locations. This paper focuses on recent developments in polymer mist suppressants for water-based MWF, particularly in the production environment. The polymer developed and tested in this study functions on a similar basis to that for straight oil anti-mist additives. This water soluble polymer suppresses the formation of small mist droplets and results in a distribution of larger droplet sizes. These larger droplets tend to settle out near the point of machining, resulting in a significant decrease in the total airborne mist concentration.
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