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Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vibration Fatigue for Chassis-Mounted, Cantilevered Components

Vehicle chassis mounted cantilevered components should meet two critical design targets: 1) NVH criterion to avoid resonance with road noise and engine vibration and 2) satisfied durability performance to avoid any incident in structure failure and dysfunction. Generally, two types of testing are performed to validate chassis mounted cantilevered component in the design process: shaker table testing and vehicle proving ground testing. Shaker table testing is a powered vibration endurance test performed with load input summarized from real proving ground data and accurate enough to replicate the physical test. The proving ground test is typically performed at critical milestones with full vehicles. Most tests are simplified lab testing to save cost and effort. CAE procedures that virtually replicate these lab tests is even more helpful in the design verification stages.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Level EMC Testing Methodology and Correlation

This paper describes an indoor electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing facility designed for automotive testing over the 60 Hz to 18 GHz frequency range. The facility includes a large TEM cell, covering the 60 Hz to 20 MHz frequency range, and a state-of-the-art anechoic chamber, covering 20 MHz to 18 GHz. In addition to describing the test cells, this paper discusses testing methodology, automatic testing software and calibration. Data is presented depicting the electromagnetic field distribution in each test cell with and without the test vehicle in place. Data is also presented showing a typical field distribution near a high power shortwave transmitter site for correlation purposes.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Glass Design Optimization Using a CFD/SEA Model

A new methodology to predict vehicle interior wind noise using CFD results has been developed. The CFD simulation replaces wind tunnel testing for providing flow field information around vehicle greenhouse. A loadcase model based on the CFD results is used to excite an SEA vehicle model. This new approach has been demonstrated on a production vehicle with success for the frequency range of 250-10K Hz. The CAE prediction of interior wind noise agrees within 0.2 sones from wind tunnel testing. The model has been used to evaluate wind noise performance with different door glass design parameters. A glass thickness change from 3.8 mm to 4.8 mm results in 1.1 sones improvement, which agrees well to 1.4 sones improvement from testing. Laminated glass with about 3 times higher damping results in 2.5 sones improvement. This methodology using CFD results can be used in the early stage of product development to impact designs.
Technical Paper

Validation of SEA Wind Noise Model for a Design Change

A wind noise model of a vehicle has been developed using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) with measured turbulent pressure data as the source input. Empirical formulas are used to scale the input data for changes in flow and design parameters. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a standard and modified vehicle to validate the SEA model and the input scaling. The results show good correlation with both the exterior turbulent pressure levels and the interior sound pressure levels across the audio frequency range.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Validating Powertrain Controller Systems With the VPACS-HIL Powertrain Simulator

To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Traditionally, this validation testing is done with open-loop signal generators, powertrain dynamometers, and real vehicles. Such testing methods either cannot simulate complex control system interactions, or are expensive and subject to variability. To address these concerns while decreasing development time and improving vehicle quality, Ford Motor Company is placing increasing focus on validating a PCS through simulation. One such testing method is a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation, which mates the physical elements of a PCS to a real-time computer simulation of a powertrain.
Journal Article

Using Generic Tyre Parameters for Low Friction Surfaces in Full Vehicle Simulations

An intervention of vehicle stability control systems is more likely on slippery surfaces, e.g. when the road is covered with snow or ice. Contrary to testing on dry asphalt, testing on such surfaces is restricted by weather and proving grounds. Another drawback in testing is the reproducibility of measurements, since the surface condition changes during the tests, and the vehicle reaction is more sensitive on slippery surface. For that, simulation enables a good pre-assessment of the control systems independent from testing conditions. Essential for this is a good knowledge about the contact between vehicle and road, meaning a good tyre model and a reasonable set of tyre model parameters. However, the low friction surface has a high variation in the friction coefficient. For instance, the available lateral acceleration on scraped ice could vary between 0.2 and 0.4 g within a day. These facts lead to the idea of using generic tyre parameters that vary in a certain range.
Technical Paper

Update on Emissions Measurement Performance of a PZEV Test Cell

In Fall of 2001, a new emissions test cell was installed at Ford Motor Company that was specifically designed for precise low-level measurements (as described in Reference 6). The primary design focus for this cell was to ensure that optimal measurement capability was available to test vehicles that meet the stringent Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) tailpipe requirements (NMOG = 10 mg/mile, NOx = 20 mg/mile). Over the past four years, there have been numerous improvements to the operational and Quality Assurance (QA) practices used in the PZEV Test Cell. Several investigations have also been performed to demonstrate the quality of its emissions measurements. Finally, a number of “lessons learned” have been documented from our experiences with PZEV measurements and with testing hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper summarizes these findings as a reference for others interested in low-level emissions measurements.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions from a PROCO Engine Powered Vehicle

Unregulated emissions, i.e., emissions which are not currently regulated by EPA, have been measured from a 7.5 L (460 CID) PROCO engine powered vehicle operating at 50 kph on a chassis dynamometer. A dilution tube was used. Emphasis was on particulate emissions, which were characterized physically and chemically. A comparison is made to recent similar measurements on Diesel and conventional gasoline powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Analysis of Aerodynamic Coefficients in an Automotive Wind Tunnel

This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for production vehicles in an automotive wind tunnel. The analysis uses a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique. Emphasis is placed on defining the elemental random and systematic uncertainties from the tunnel’s instrumentation, understanding how they propagate through the data reduction equations and under what conditions specific elemental error sources are or are not important, and how the approach to data reduction influences the overall uncertainties in the coefficients. The results of the analysis are used to address the issue of averaging time in the context of maintaining a maximum allowable uncertainty level. Also, a maximum error requirement in the vehicle’s installation is suggested to allow the use of rapid but approximate vehicle alignment methods without incurring errors that exceed the data uncertainty. Observed reproducibility results are presented spanning a 16 month period.
Technical Paper

Transitioning Automotive Testing from the Road to the Lab

The importance of the automotive test facility has increased significantly due in large part to continuous pressure on manufactures to shorten product development cycles. Test facilities are no longer used only for regulatory testing, or development testing in which the effects of small design changes (A-to-B testing) are determined; automotive manufacturers are beginning to use these facilities for final design validation, which has traditionally required on road testing. A host of resources have gone into the design and construction of facilities with the capability to simulate nearly any environment of practical importance to the automotive industry. As a result, there are now a number of test facilities, and specifically wind tunnels, in which engineers can test most aspects of a vehicle's performance in real-world environments.
Technical Paper

Tire pressure impact on structural durability tests results

During the Product Development Process, the experimental engineers try to acquire the most reliable data from Proving Grounds early on the development process, aiming to support CAE model correlation and in this way ensuring that the vehicle is capable of withstanding customer loads. Those data, from Proving Grounds, are correlated to the most severe customer's usage and public road conditions. The proposal of this paper is to analyze how tire pressure affects structural durability, since safety, performance and fuel economy were already discussed on other opportunities. Tire pressure is important because it's one variable where the customer can monitor and act and because TPMS (Tire Pressure Measurement System) is not available on most vehicles sold in the Brazilian Market,
Technical Paper

Tire Cornering/Traction Test Methods

The paper describes a new tire cornering/traction trailer designed to measure the traction and steering performance of passenger car tires, outlines related test methods, and provides supporting test data. A general set of specifications is given for the entire test system. The major subsystems described are the trailer with its versatile suspension; the tow vehicle and its performance capabilities; the transducer system which measures the normal load, lateral force, fore-and-aft force, aligning torque, steer angle and speed; and the instrumentation. The calibration method is described. The test methods described include those for straight-line braking, maximum lateral traction, steady state and transient steering response, and combined braking and cornering traction. Supporting data and discussion are presented for each test method.