Refine Your Search

Search Results

Technical Paper

Workloads and Environment of Closed Habitation Experiments in CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) and Physio-Psychological Changes in Habitants (Eco-Nauts) During the Experiments

2005-07-11
2005-01-3005
The Closed Ecological Experimental Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans and animals. In the experiments starting from FY2005, habitants referred to as eco-nauts will be exposed to complex workloads and various CEEF environmental factors, which may influence their physio-psychological state, and lower their performance. Therefore, preliminary experiments were conducted on the workload-matched (11.1h work, 168h, airlock open) and the environment-matched condition (6.9h work, 24h, air circulation) to monitor physio-psychological changes. As a result, both experiment types were conducted as scheduled without any major problems, and no serious physio-psychological disorders were observed in the eco-nauts. One week closed habitation experiments will be performed as a preliminary step toward much longer (max. 4 months) experiments.
Technical Paper

The Initial Tests for Performance Evaluation of Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

1997-07-01
972517
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) have been under construction in northern Japan since 1994. These facilities contain the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF), as well as other facilities, in all of which, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) research and development can be conducted. The CPEF includes two Plant Cultivation Modules (PCMs), which contain a PCM consists of three 30m2 closed cultivation rooms illuminated solely by lamps and a 165.1m3 preparation room, and a PCM consists of a 60m2 closed cultivation room illuminated by natural light and supplemental lamps and a 88.8m3 preparation room, and a Material Circulation System (MCS). Measured rate of air exchange between a 30m2 cultivation room and the preparation room was 0.48% hour-1, and that for a 60m2 cultivation room was about 0.11% hour-1. Air leak rate of the PCM as a whole was less than 0.01% hour-1 under isothermal and equal pressure condition.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Repeated Closed Habitation Experiments on Crews Health

2007-07-09
2007-01-3229
Two-week closed habitation experiments were repeated three times using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) to evaluate the capability of advanced life support systems. The CEEF is a two-manned system. Four crew members, termed econauts, inhabited the CEEF, taking turns at one-week shifts in pairs. Each econaut underwent three habitations. In order to evaluate the state of health of the crew, medical examinations were carried out before, immediately after and two months after the series of habitations. Physical data such as blood pressure, body temperature and body weight were monitored during each habitation. In 2005, though calorie intake and expenditure were well balanced, a temporary reduction in body weight was observed. As a countermeasure in 2006, econauts began their habitation diet one week before habitation to adapt their condition. As a result, total serum cholesterol significantly decreased after the series of habitations.
Technical Paper

TRACE CONTAMINANTS CONTROL ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE JAPANESE CLOSED ECOLOGY EXPERIMENT FACILITIES

1994-06-01
941446
In the closed environments such as manned space station, it is necessary to remove contaminant gas to keep a suitable environment. Removal of gaseous contaminants generated from crew, animals, and plants is important function to keep the environment below the allowable level in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (abbreviated as CEEF). CEEF consist of three modules for habitat, animal and plant, the supporting facilities for each module and a plant cultivation facility. CEEF are scheduled to be constructed from 1994 in Aomori Prefecture, northern part of Japan. For designing Trace Contaminant Control Assembly (TCCA) for CEEF, the following six (6) trace contaminants have been selected as major contaminant gas in CEEF; Ammonia (NH3) Methane (CH4) Ethylene (C2H4) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Ethylene is well-known as an aggressive contaminant to plant growth and maturity.
Technical Paper

Sweetener Production and Self-sufficiency in Closed Habitation Experiments

2007-07-09
2007-01-3049
Determination of sweetener production from sugar beets was carried out in order to accomplish self sufficiency in closed habitation experiments in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF or the so-called “Mini-Earth”) of the Institute for Environmental Sciences in Rokkasho, Aomori, Japan. The sweetener was made from sugar beets, which were cultivated hydroponically in the CEEF, were grounded and the juice was pressed out. Sensory analysis was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of the sweetener. The seven-day closed habitation experiments in the CEEF were conducted six times and the use of the sweetener was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Study of Oxygen Recovery System using Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

1995-07-01
951558
The simulation test for the controlled ecological life support system is planned by Institute for Environmental Sciences (IES) of Japan. The purpose of this test is to confirm that in the closed space, the environmental and life support system is normally carried out. The establishments to perform the simulation test has been constructed at Rokkasho-mura village, Aomori prefecture, in Japan. We have been developed “Oxygen Recovery System” which decompose carbon dioxide (CO2) and regenerate oxygen(O2), for the simulation test. The oxygen recovery system consists of a equipment to reduce CO2 using the Sabatier method and a equipment to regenerate oxygen using water electrolysis method (Refer to Figure 1). And this reaction principle is as follows; The carbon dioxide is produced by the respiration of human, animals and plants. The carbon dioxide is reduced to methane and water using hydrogen in the first reaction.
Technical Paper

Simulation to Support an Integration Test Project of CEEF

2001-07-09
2001-01-2130
A simulation of an open mode system experiment was run using the same experimental conditions as an integration test conducted from September 1999 to February 2000 using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility at the Institute for Environmental Sciences in order to evaluate the operation of closed mode system to be conducted in future. Operation of the open mode system experiment required a supply of water and carbon dioxide from the outside, and the discharge of nutrient waste water and oxygen. The present simulation verified the feasibility of using non-integrated wet-oxidation processor, nutrient synthesis unit and nutrient waste water processor connected within a closed mode system, and it was confirmed that sufficient material circulation could be achieved when rice and soybeans were divided into six beds with different growing stages to facilitate control of the nutrient solution.
Technical Paper

Simulation Model for the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility of CEEF

2006-07-17
2006-01-2125
Closure experiments will be conducted using the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The CEEF behavioral Prediction System (CPS) has been developed to check the CEEF operation for the closure experiments in advance. For the development of CPS, a simulation program for CPEF had been developed and reported. A simulation program for CAHEF was developed, and combined with the simulation program for CPEF. This integrated simulation program was validated by data obtained from a habitation experiment conducted in CEEF.
Technical Paper

Research and Development of Operation Technology on the Waste Processing System of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities for Circulation of Carbon in an Experimental Closed Ecosystem Comprised of Humans, Goats and Crops

2008-06-29
2008-01-1979
Before a series of overall material circulation in an experimental system including crops, animals and humans, technical examinations for the development of a waste processing system were conducted for incorporating the system to the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). The examinations are intended to validate the function of the carbonization and incineration processing units which were installed in the CEEF in 2006. Using different mock-up samples, examinations have been carried out to verify the function and capability of the whole system, including the waste carbonization processing unit, incineration processing unit, exhaust gas tank and the exhaust gas processing unit. In an examination using filter paper pulp as a mock-up sample, processing time in each unit was checked. The processing times needed for carbonization and incineration processing were 5.7 and 2.6 hours, respectively.
Technical Paper

Rapid and Accurate Determination of Bacterial Abundance and their Physiological Activity in Freshwater used in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) “Mini-Earth”, Japan

2006-07-17
2006-01-2078
In space utilization, an enormous amount of freshwater for drinking, daily use, hydroponics. is used and recycled in a closed habitat. We have developed culture-independent techniques to analyze microbial cells at the single level, a cell itself, and also community level. By using these methods such as fluorescent vital staining (double staining with carboxyfluorescein diacetate and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole), microcolony method and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), bacterial abundance and their physiological activity in freshwater used in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) “Mini-Earth” were determined.
Technical Paper

Preliminary research on Energy Metabolism of Candidate Animals in Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2000-07-10
2000-01-2336
The basal metabolism of the Candidate Animal is mainly on energy metabolism that was estimated for future animal breeding in CEEF as preliminary research. The amounts of gas exchange in the respiration and heat production of the Shiba goat (native Japanese goat) were analyzed to predict energy and material flow of the animal breeding system in the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF). Experimental animals were fed Timothy hay or inedible parts of rice cultivated in CEEF. The feces and urine were collected during the 7-day metabolism measurement period after a 2-week preliminary breeding period. The O2 consumption, CO2 production, and CH4 production were measured by a mass spectrometric respiration gas analysis system on the 7th day of the metabolism measurement period. Heat production was also obtained from these data. O2 consumption, CO2 production and CH4 production were 100.3 - 153.8 L, 127.2 - 174.0 L and 5.7 - 10.8 L per day (at 0°C, 0.101MPa), respectively.
Technical Paper

Plant Nutrient Solution Production Subsystem and Mineral Recycling in CEEF

2000-07-10
2000-01-2335
In the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), waste materials such as plant inedible parts, feces and urine of animal and human, and garbage are to be decomposed to inorganic materials by a physical and chemical (P/C) process; Wet Oxidation (W/O). It is known that significant part of nitrogen (N) in the waste materials is reduced to gaseous nitrogen (N2) through W/O process. There is also some deposition of minerals such as iron (Fe) and phosphorous (P) through W/O process. Nitrogen Fixation Subsystem (NFS) produces ammonia (NH3) which is one of end products of NFS, from N2 separated from module air and hydrogen (H2) derived from electrolyses of water, and also produces nitrate (HNO3) from a part of the NH3 and oxygen (O2) derived from electrolyses of water. As another end product of NFS, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is produced from the HNO3 and a part of the NH3.
Technical Paper

Physiological Monitoring of Crew During Repeated 7-Day Habitation in an Advanced Life Support System

2007-07-09
2007-01-3230
Human activities in space must include life in a confined, artificial and isolated environment. We investigated the mental and physiological status of four crewmembers undergoing repeated seven-day habitation in an advanced life support system. In order to monitor the psycho-physiological stresses, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline were sampled and visual-analog scale was serially recorded. As a result, saliva cortisol and urinary adrenaline levels were higher in pre- and post habitation. Psychological scales showed a relatively relaxed mood during habitation, indicating that the crew experienced stress in the pre- and post seven-day habitation periods. The periods of environmental change such as those pre-and post habitation seem to be critical for monitoring the health of crew performing analogous missions.
Technical Paper

Paper Production in an Advanced Life Support System (ALSS)

2005-07-11
2005-01-2929
This paper introduces a concept and a design to supply paper products for an earth based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS) test bed and it shows some results of paper production trials on the ALSS using inedible biomass. Rice plants (i.e. straw and roots), and soybean stems were pulped by boiling and/or alkali soaking and a mechanical processing method. Paper could be produced from both and exhibited different characteristics. Paper with quality suitable for hygienic tissue could be obtained and very absorbent paper was also possible. A rapid pulping method without a chemical process was also investigated. A potential for reducing chemical consumption, liquid waste and labor cost of paper production in the ALSS was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Outreach Activities of the Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF)

2007-07-09
2007-01-3068
The CEEF (Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities) was constructed for collecting data on carbon transfer from the atmosphere to crops, livestock and humans by conducting material circulation experiments, including the habitation of humans and animals and growing crops which supply food and feed, within a closed environment. The main objective of the CEEF project involves understanding the transfer of radiocarbon in the environment via experiments using stable carbon isotopes. On the other hand, the project is also a good example demonstrating human life in ecosystem material circulation. Many people visited and toured the CEEF and the project has been introduced by the media. The candidate inhabitants, who were selected for the project following medical and psychological testing, are called “eco-nauts”. The CEEF project was introduced and eco-nauts participated in events with the intention of educating the public on the human impacts on an ecosystem made by a science museum.
Technical Paper

Outline of Material Circulation — Closed Habitation Experiments Conducted in 2005 – 2007 Using Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities

2009-07-12
2009-01-2580
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF) were installed to collect data for estimation of transfer of radionuclides from atmosphere to humans in the ecosystem. The first target among the radio-nuclides is 14C. In order to validate function of material circulation in an experimental system constructed in the CEEF, circulation of air constituents, water and materials in waste was demonstrated connecting the Closed Plant Experiment Facility (CPEF) and the Closed Animal and Human habitation Experiment Facility (CAHEF) of the CEEF, since 2005 to 2007. The CPEF has a Plant Cultivation Module (PCM), which comprises of three plant chambers illuminated solely by artificial lighting, one plant chamber illuminated by both natural and artificial lighting, a space for preparation, and an airlock, and a physical/chemical material circulation system.
Technical Paper

Nitrogen Fixation System as a CELSS Subsystem for CEEF

1996-07-01
961418
The Nitrogen Fixation System (NFS) which produces ammonia and nitric acid from nitrogen and water has been developed. The NFS is one essential part of material circulation system of the CEEF (Closed Ecological Experiment Facility) the first Japanese CELSS experiment facility. Basically, physico-chemical and some new technologies are utilized as elemental processes in the NFS. Low pressure ammonia synthesis, ammonia enrichment with PSA and water electrolysis with SPE are such new technologies. We designed and installed the NFS as a subsystem of CEEF. The capacity of the NFS is 125g/day as fixed nitrogen. First operation of NFS is expected to be done early fiscal year of 1996 in CEEF.
Technical Paper

NOx Emission during Operation of a Drying Toilet System in Air-Circulated Confinement Experiment

2006-07-17
2006-01-2155
The Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), designed to simulate material circulation, is an artificial closed agricultural ecosystem with plants, humans, and animals. The drying toilet system “DRI-LET®” had been installed in the habitation module as a human waste processor for material circulation by carbonizing. Carbonizing of human waste has advantages in life support systems because it can minimize the total volume and weight of human waste. However, this toilet system releases many gases during processing. In particular, NO2 concentration in the habitation module increased up to 4 ppm when one person used the toilet system. In this paper, we report NO and NO2 behavior in the habitation module during experiments and a method to reduce their concentrations by using NO and NO2 adsorbent.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF (2)

1995-07-01
951581
A unique recovery system for NaCI (salt) from urine, which consists of electrodialysis (ED) and crystallization processes is proposed. The possibility of the mineral recovery included in urine is shown in a previous report. To improve the purity of the produced salt, pH control is needed as a pretreatment. By controlling pH of the feed solution to about 10, multivalent ions such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ are crystallized as phosphate solids which can be separated by filtration. As well as raising the NaCI purity, this controls scaling b y multivalent ions.
Technical Paper

Mineral Recovery System in a CEEF

1994-06-01
941499
We propose a new recovery system for NaCl from human urine. The system has an electrodialysis (ED) part and a crystallization part. Separation and concentration characteristics of the system are discussed for fundamental experiments of the ED and crystallization parts. Concentrated NaCl-KCl mixed solution is obtained using the ED process from simulated oxidized urine and sweat which include Ca2+ and S042- ions. Then, the crystallization process is used to separate about 80% of the NaCl from the ED treated solution. The experimental studies indicate that the mineral recovery system we proposed can recover NaCl from waste water of a CEEF.
X