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Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

1960-01-01
600018
THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0364
The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Analysis of Front End Air Flow for a Simplified Engine Compartment

1992-06-01
921091
A computer code for predicting cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser has been developed. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, together with the porous flow model for the radiator and the condenser, were solved to simulate front end air flow and the engine compartment flow simultaneously. These transport equations were discretized based on a finite-volume method in a transformed domain. The computational results for a simplified engine compartment showed overall flow information, such as the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser, the effects of an air dam, and the effects of fresh air vents near the top of the radiator and the condenser. Comparison of the available experimental data with the analysis showed excellent prediction of the cooling air flow through the radiator and the condenser.
Technical Paper

Rear Full Overlap High Speed Car-to-Car Impact Simulation

1995-04-01
951085
A rear full overlap car-to-car high speed impact simulation using the DYNA3D Finite Element Software was performed to examine the crush mode for rear structure of a vehicle and to observe the effect of rear bumper system in order to maintain the fuel system integrity. The study was conducted first for two different bumper system configurations, namely: (1) validating the model for struck vehicle with steel rear bumper system, (2) simulating rear end collision with composite rear bumper system attached to the rear rails of struck vehicle. Later a third simulation of the model was conducted with a viable design modification to the composite bumper system for improved crashworthiness. It was identified that a more comprehensive FEA model of the bullet car including front end structure, powertrain components, cooling system and other components which constitute the load paths should be incorporated in the analysis to obtain more meaningful correlation and crashworthiness prediction.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

2010-04-12
2010-01-0407
Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0410
Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.
Technical Paper

Interrelationship of Design, Lubrication, and Metallurgy in Cam and Tappet Performance

1956-01-01
560017
A PROGRAM was undertaken to evaluate the performance of cams and tappets as influenced by design, lubrication, and metallurgical techniques. Car and dynamometer tests and a newly developed bench test are described. The latter shows promise in lending itself to the determination of the effects of single variables in a practical, short, and economic fashion, while the former do not. For the conditions of high contact stress and boundary lubrication experienced in cam and tappet operation, the authors draw several conclusions from the test work described, categorically related to the design, lubrication, and metallurigical problems present.
Technical Paper

FEA Predictions and Test Results from Magnesium Beams in Bending and Axial Compression

2010-04-12
2010-01-0405
Finite element analysis (FEA) predictions of magnesium beams are compared to load versus displacement test measurements. The beams are made from AM60B die castings, AM30 extrusions and AZ31 sheet. The sheet and die cast beams are built up from two top hat sections joined with toughened epoxy adhesive and structural rivets. LS-DYNA material model MAT_124 predicts the magnesium behavior over a range of strain rates and accommodates different responses in tension and compression. Material test results and FEA experience set the strain to failure limits in the FEA predictions. The boundary conditions in the FEA models closely mimic the loading and constraint conditions in the component testing. Results from quasi-static four-point bend, quasi-static axial compression and high-speed axial compression tests of magnesium beams show the beam's behavior over a range of loadings and test rates. The magnesium beams exhibit significant material cracking and splitting in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a Continuous Annealed Bake Hardenable Steel for Improved Dent Resistance

1989-02-01
890711
The potential of bake hardenable steel as a substitute for SAE 1008 steel to reduce gage and improve dent resistance is investigated in this report. Outer body panels in particular are susceptible to palm printing and other forms of denting. Conventional SAE 1008 steel and a developmental continuous annealed bake hardenable steel from Inland Steel Company are compared for dent performance properties. Bake hardenable (BH) steel is a medium strength (200-350 MPa) steel that receives an increase in yield strength during the heating of the paint bake cycle. An increase in yield strength would result in an increase in dent resistance. The increase in dent resistance is more quantitatively evaluated by comparing the BH steel with the current production material (SAE 1008) of a rear compartment lid outer.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

2010-04-12
2010-01-0016
Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Counter-Gravity Casting Process for Making Thinwall Steel Exhaust Manifolds

1997-02-24
970920
Casting technology developmentshave led to a manufacturing process that allows the casting of thin wall (2-3mm) heat resistant ferritic stainless steel exhaust manifolds which can replace stamped and tubular weldments as well as iron castings where temperature requirements are increased. This casting process combines the thin wall and clean metal benefits of the counter gravity, vacuum-assist casting process using thin, light-weight bonded sand molds supported by vacuum-ridgidized sand. This combination is called the LSVAC (Loose Sand Vacuum Assisted Casting) process, a patented process. This process will significantly contribute to the growth of near-net shape steellstainless steel castings for automotive and allied industries. For exhaust manifolds, a modified grade of ferritic stainless steel with good oxidation resistance to 950°C in high dew point synthetic exhaust gas atmospheres was developed.
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