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Technical Paper

the effect of Residual Stresses Induced by Strain-Peening upon Fatigue Strength

THE PURPOSE of this experiment was to determine the role of residual stresses in fatigue strength independent of other factors usually involved when residual stresses are introduced. It consisted of an investigation of the influence of residual stresses introduced by shotpeening on the fatigue strength of steel (Rockwell C hardness 48) in unidirectional bending. Residual stresses were varied by peening under various conditions of applied strain. This process introduced substantially the same amount and kind of surface cold working with residual stresses varying over a wide range of values. It was found that shotpeening of steel of this hardness is beneficial primarily because of the nature of the macro-residual-stresses introduced by the process. There is no gain attributable to “strain-hardening” for this material. An effort was made to explain the results on the basis of three failure criteria: distortion energy, maximum shear stress, and maximum stress.*
Technical Paper

Vehicle Underbody Thermal Simulation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

This study was initiated to evaluate the thermal characteristics of a vehicle underbody using math-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation based on 3-D configuration. Simulations without heat shields were carried out for different vehicle operating conditions which placed several areas at risk of exceeding their thermal design limits. Subsequently, simulations with several heat shield designs were performed. Results show that areas at risk without shields are well within thermal design limits when shielded. Part of the CFD simulation results were compared with experimental data, with reasonable correlation. The CFD approach can provide useful design information in a very short time frame.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cross Wind Air Flow Analysis

CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) has been used to analyze vehicle air flow. In cross wind conditions an asymmetrical flow field around the vehicle is present. Under these circumstances, in addition to the forces present with symmetric air flow (drag and lift forces and pitching moment), side forces and moments (rolling and yawing) occur. Issues related to fuel economy, driveability, sealing effects (caused by suction exerted on the door), structural integrity (sun roof, spoiler), water management (rain deposit), and dirt deposit (shear stress) have been investigated. Due to the software developments and computer hardware improvements, results can be obtained within a reasonable time frame with excellent accuracy (both geometry and analytical solution). The flow velocity, streamlines, pressure field, and component forces can be extracted from the analysis results through visualization to identify potential improvement areas.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Crashworthiness Analysis Using Numerical Methods and Experiments

Past studies have shown the applicability of advanced numerical methods for crashworthiness simulation. Lumped parameter (LP) modeling and finite element (FE) modeling have been demonstrated as two useful methodologies for achieving this endeavor. Experimental tests and analytical modeling using LP and FE techniques were performed on an experimental vehicle in order to evaluate the compatibility and interrelationship of the two numerical methods for crashworthiness simulation. The objective of the numerical analysis was to simulate the vehicle crashworthiness in a 0 degree, 48.6 KPH frontal impact. Additionally, a single commercial software, LS-DYNA3D, was used for both the LP and FE analysis.
Technical Paper

Variation in Cyclic Deformation and Strain-Controlled Fatigue Properties Using Different Curve Fitting and Measurement Techniques

The strain-life approach is now commonly used for fatigue life analysis and predictions in the ground vehicle industry. This approach requires the use of material properties obtained from strain-controlled uniaxial fatigue tests. These properties include fatigue strength coefficient (σf′), fatigue strength exponent (b), fatigue ductility coefficient (εf′), fatigue ductility exponent (c), cyclic strength coefficient (K′), and cyclic strain hardening exponent (n′). To obtain the aforementioned properties for the material, raw data from stable cyclic stress-strain loops are fitted in log-log scale. These data include total, elastic and plastic strain amplitudes, stress amplitude, and fatigue life. Values of the low cycle fatigue properties (σf′, b, εf′, c) determined from the raw data depend on the method of measurement and fitting. This paper examines the merits and influence of using different measurement and fitting methods on the obtained properties.
Technical Paper

Utilization of a Chassis Dynamometer for Development of Exterior Noise Control Systems

The development of systems and components for control of exterior noise has traditionally been done through an iterative process of on road testing. Frequently, road testing of vehicle modifications are delayed due to ambient environmental changes that prevent testing. Vehicle dynamometers used for powertrain development often had limited space preventing far field measurements. Recently, several European vehicle manufacturers constructed facilities that provided adequate space for simulation of the road test. This paper describes the first implementation of that technology in the U.S.. The facility is typical of those used world wide, but it is important to recognize some of the challenges to effective utilization of the technique to correlate this measurement to on road certification.
Technical Paper

Using a Geometric Toolkit to Link Finite Element Calculations in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis

Sheet metal forming of automobile body panel consists of two processes performed in series: binder forming and punch forming. Due to differences in deformation characteristics of the two forming processes, their analysis methods are different. The binder wrap surface shape and formed part shape are calculated using different mathematical models and different finite element codes, e.g., WRAPFORM and PANELFORM, respectively. The output of the binder forming analysis may not be directly applicable to the subsequent punch forming analysis. Interpolation, or approximation, of the calculated binder wrap surface geometry is needed. This surface representation requirement is carried out using computer aided geometric design tools. This paper discusses the use of such a tool, SURFPLAN, to link WRAPFORM and PANELFORM calculations.
Technical Paper

The Oxidative Stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Global Factory Fill ATF

A detailed description of the oxidative stability of GM's DEXRON®-VI Factory Fill Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is provided, which can be integrated into a working algorithm to estimate the end of useful oxidative life of the fluid. As described previously, an algorithm to determine the end of useful life of an automatic transmission fluid exists and is composed of two simultaneous counters, one monitoring bulk oxidation and the other monitoring friction degradation [1]. When either the bulk oxidation model or the friction model reach the specified limit, a signal can be triggered to alert the driver that an ATF change is required. The data presented in this report can be used to develop the bulk oxidation model. The bulk oxidation model is built from a large series of bench oxidation tests. These data can also be used independent of a vehicle to show the relative oxidation resistance of this fluid, at various temperatures, compared to other common lubricants.
Technical Paper

The Manufacturing Manager and the Computer

This paper discusses the development and execution of a unique one-day, hands-on seminar designed to introduce top-level manufacturing managers to the computer. Total emphasis is on manufacturing applications, and each manager is afforded an opportunity to use the computer himself. The mystery of data cards, teletype terminals, and CRTs is removed during line balancing, simulation, and process control work sessions. The seminar was developed by General Motor's Manufacturing Development Activity for internal presentation to GM managers.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Limiting Shoulder Belt Load with Air Bag Restraint

The dilemma of using a shoulder belt force limiter with a 3-point belt system is selecting a limit load that will balance the reduced risk of significant thoracic injury due to the shoulder belt loading of the chest against the increased risk of significant head injury due to the greater upper torso motion allowed by the shoulder belt load limiter. However, with the use of air bags, this dilemma is more manageable since it only occurs for non-deploy accidents where the risk of significant head injury is low even for the unbelted occupant. A study was done using a validated occupant dynamics model of the Hybrid III dummy to investigate the effects that a prescribed set of shoulder belt force limits had on head and thoracic responses for 48 and 56 km/h barrier simulations with driver air bag deployment and for threshold crash severity simulations with no air bag deployment.
Technical Paper

The 1997 Chevrolet Corvette Structure Architecture Synthesis

This paper describes the design, synthesis-analysis and development of the unique vehicle structure architecture for the fifth generation Chevrolet Corvette, ‘C5’, which starts in the 1997 model year. The innovative structural layout of the ‘C5’ enables torsional rigidity in an open roof vehicle which exceeds that of all current production open roof vehicles by a wide margin. The first structural mode of the ‘C5’ in open roof configuration approaches typical values measured in similar size fixed roof vehicles. Extensive use of CAE and a systems methodology of benchmarking and requirements rolldown were employed to develop the ‘C5’ vehicle architecture. Simple computer models coupled with numerical optimization were used early in the design process to evaluate every design concept and alternative iteration for mass and structural efficiency.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis of Airborne and Structure-Borne Automobile Interior Noise

This paper describes the application of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Experimental SEA (ESEA) to calculating the transmission of air-borne and structure-borne noise in a mid-sized sedan. SEA can be applied rapidly in the early stages of vehicle design where the degree of geometric detail is relatively low. It is well suited to the analysis of multiple paths of vibrational energy flow from multiple sources into the passenger compartment at mid to high frequencies. However, the application of SEA is made difficult by the geometry of the vehicle's subsystems and joints. Experience with current unibody vehicles leads to distinct modeling strategies for the various frequency ranges in which airborne or structure-borne noise predominates. The theory and application of ESEA to structure-borne noise is discussed. ESEA yields loss factors and input powers which are combined with an analytical SEA model to yield a single hybrid model.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Densification in Powder Metal Forging

Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation of the powder metal forging process can be a useful tool in new product or process development because the simulation provides tooling load estimates, press size requirements, preform design feasibility and allows accurate and inexpensive parametric studies of forging process variables. Several examples of simulations using ALPID-P code are presented. Axisymmetric and plane strain simulations at several cross sections of an automotive P/M connecting rod forging indicate that die wall friction has a large effect on the densification process. Also, simulations indicate a significant die wall velocity effect on densification.
Technical Paper

Rear Full Overlap High Speed Car-to-Car Impact Simulation

A rear full overlap car-to-car high speed impact simulation using the DYNA3D Finite Element Software was performed to examine the crush mode for rear structure of a vehicle and to observe the effect of rear bumper system in order to maintain the fuel system integrity. The study was conducted first for two different bumper system configurations, namely: (1) validating the model for struck vehicle with steel rear bumper system, (2) simulating rear end collision with composite rear bumper system attached to the rear rails of struck vehicle. Later a third simulation of the model was conducted with a viable design modification to the composite bumper system for improved crashworthiness. It was identified that a more comprehensive FEA model of the bullet car including front end structure, powertrain components, cooling system and other components which constitute the load paths should be incorporated in the analysis to obtain more meaningful correlation and crashworthiness prediction.
Technical Paper

Piston Fuel Film Observations in an Optical Access GDI Engine

A gasoline direct injection fuel spray was observed using a fired, optical access, square cross-section single cylinder research engine and high-speed video imaging. Spray interaction with the piston is described qualitatively, and the results are compared with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation results using KIVA-3V version 2. CFD simulations predicted that within the operating window for stratified charge operation, between 1% and 4% of the injected fuel would remain on the piston as a liquid film, dependent primarily on piston temperature. The experimental results support the CFD simulations qualitatively, but the amount of fuel film remaining on the piston appears to be under-predicted. High-speed video footage shows a vigorous spray impingement on the piston crown, resulting in vapor production.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Vehicle Side Impact Test: Development. Application and Design Iterations

This paper describes a numerical simulation technique applicable to the FMVSS 214 side impact test through the use of the finite element method (FEM) technology. The paper outlines the development of the side impact dummy (SID), moving deformable barrier (MDB) and the test vehicle FEM models, as well as the development of new advanced constitutive models of materials and algorithms in LS-DYNA3D which are related to the topic. Presented in the paper are some initial simulation problems which were encountered and solved, as well as the correlation of the simulation data to the physical test.
Technical Paper

Multiple Solutions by Performance Band: An Effective Way to Deal with Modeling Error

Robust optimization usually requires numerous functional evaluations, which is not feasible when the functional evaluation is time-consuming. Examples in automobile industry include crash worthiness/safety and fatigue life simulations. In practice, a response surface model (RSM) is often used as a surrogate to the CAE model, so that robust optimization can be carried out. However, if the error in the RSM is significant, the solution based on the RSM can be invalid. This paper proposes a method of finding multiple candidate solutions, all of which have similar predicted performances. This approach is effective in finding the close-to-optimum solutions when the model has error, and providing design alternatives. Examples are provided to illustrate the method.
Technical Paper

Monotonic and Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Extrusion Alloy AM30: An International Benchmark Test in the “Magnesium Front End Research and Development Project”

Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural metal and recently attention has been focused on using them for structural automotive components. Fatigue and durability studies are essential in the design of these load-bearing components. In 2006, a large multinational research effort, Magnesium Front End Research & Development (MFERD), was launched involving researchers from Canada, China and the US. The MFERD project is intended to investigate the applicability of Mg alloys as lightweight materials for automotive body structures. The participating institutions in fatigue and durability studies were the University of Waterloo and Ryerson University from Canada, Institute of Metal Research (IMR) from China, and Mississippi State University, Westmorland, General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company and Chrysler Group LLC from the United States.
Technical Paper

Modeling Large Deformations Using Polycarbonate Scale Models

This paper presents a method for modeling large deformations of structures using scale plastic models. The method was used to predict the dynamic barrier crash performance of a proposed vehicle structure with the aid of a computer simulation of the collision. The use of the technique can provide design direction in the early stages of the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

Mechanical and Thermophysical Properties of Magnesium Alloy Extrusions

Magnesium alloy extrusions offer potentially more mass saving compared to magnesium castings. One of the tasks in the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) ?Magnesium Front End Research and Development? (MFERD) project is to evaluate magnesium extrusion alloys AM30, AZ31 and AZ61 for automotive body applications. Solid and hollow sections were made by lowcost direct extrusion process. Mechanical properties in tension and compression were tested in extrusion, transverse and 45 degree directions. The tensile properties of the extrusion alloys in the extrusion direction are generally higher than those of conventional die cast alloys. However, significant tension-compression asymmetry and plastic anisotropy need to be understood and captured in the component design.