Recent Progress in the Development of Forming Limit Curves for Automotive Sheet Steels
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are extensively used in North American press shops during tooling trials and in production for problem identification/resolution. The Keeler-Goodwin FLC shape and the correlation developed by Keeler and Brazier (based on n-value and thickness) have been widely accepted as the Standard FLC Method to predict forming limit curves for commercial steels. In this paper, the Standard FLC Method is reviewed, and an alternative approach used at the authors' laboratory (Bethlehem FLC Method) is described. The two methods are discussed in the context of more recent experimental determinations of FLC's for a variety of “modern” sheet steels including DQSK, Interstitial Free and Bake-Hardening steels, as well as coated sheet products. Some specific press-shop examples are also presented, which further highlight the value to industry of re-examining the Standard FLC Methodology used in circle-grid analysis.