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Technical Paper

Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure with Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0227
In this study both double and triple injection strategies were used with fuel pressures up to 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. Tests were conducted at medium load conditions with cooled, high-pressure EGR at a ratio of 40% and higher. A four-cylinder production engine, featuring double turbochargers with one variable geometry turbocharger, was tested. The double injection strategy consisted of a 20% close-coupled pilot injection while the triple injection strategy introduced a post injection consisting of 10% the total cycle fuel. Results of this study do not indicate an advantage to extreme fuel pressure. The increased air entrainment reduces soot while increasing the premixed burn heat release, mean cylinder temperature, and NOx. Compared to the double injection scheme, triple injections achieved much lower soot for the same EGR rate with only a small NOx penalty.
Technical Paper

Two Zone Combustion Models for Second Law Analysis of Internal Combustion Engines

1989-02-01
890823
Second law analyses of both spark-ignition and diesel engines are presented using two-zone models. The analyses include descriptions of the evaluation of the various terms in the availability balance. Chemical and thermomechanical availability are separated using a definition which allows the portion of the fuel availability that can be extracted by a combustion engine to be distinguished from that which requires interaction with the reference environment. The chemical availability must be calculated correctly in order to obtain an availability balance. The diesel model includes a parameter that allows the effect of fuel-air mixing rates to be simulated. The analyses for the spark-ignition and diesel models are applied in a parametric study of the effects of equivalence ratio, fuel-air mixing, residual fraction and combustion duration on the chemical and thermomechanical availability and the irreversibility.
Technical Paper

Trade-Offs Between Emissions and Efficiency for Multiple Injections of Neat Biodiesel in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Using an Enhanced PSO-GA Optimization Strategy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0630
Particle Swarm and the Genetic Algorithm were coupled to optimize multiple performance metrics for the combustion of neat biodiesel in a turbocharged, four cylinder, John Deere engine operating under constant partial load. The enhanced algorithm was used with five inputs including EGR, injection pressure, and the timing/distribution of fuel between a pilot and main injection. A merit function was defined and used to minimize five output parameters including CO, NOx, PM, HC and fuel consumption simultaneously. The combination of PSO and GA yielded convergence to a Pareto regime without the need for excessive engine runs. Results along the Pareto front illustrate the tradeoff between NOx and particulate matter seen in the literature.
Technical Paper

The Role of Chemically Modified Surfaces in the Construction of Miniaturized Analytical Instrumentation

1993-07-01
932207
This paper describes the development of a thin-film optical sensor for measuring pH. The indicator behaves as a polyprotic acid with differing optical properties in each of its chemical forms. Together, these properties facilitate the development of an internally calibrated sensor by calculating the ratios of the absorption maximas for each form of the indicator. The covalent immobilization procedure developed demonstrated long term stability of 4 months without recalibration.
Technical Paper

Predicting Effects of DME on the Operating Range of Natural Gas-Fueled Compression Ignition Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0620
Numerical models were used to study the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the operation of a compression-ignition engine fueled with premixed natural gas. The models used multi-dimensional engine CFD coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. Combustion characteristics of various compositions of the natural gas and DME mixture were simulated. Results showed that combustion phasing, nitrogen oxides emissions, and effects of fuel compositions on engine operating limits were well predicted. Chemical kinetics analysis indicated that ignition was achieved by DME oxidation, which, in turn, induced natural gas combustion. It was found that low temperature heat release became more significant as DME concentration increased. For an appropriate amount of DME in the mixture, the stable engine operating range became narrower as natural gas concentration increased. The model also captured the low temperature combustion features of the present engine with low nitrogen oxides emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel Droplet Impact on Heated Surfaces Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0291
The impact of fuel droplets on heated surfaces is of great importance in internal combustion engines. In engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, the drop-wall interaction is usually considered by using models derived from experimental data and correlations rather than direct simulations. This paper presented a numerical method based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), which can directly simulate the impact process of fuel droplets impinging on solid surfaces. The SPH method is a Lagrangian meshfree particle method. It discretizes fluid into a number of SPH particles and governing equations of fluid into a set of particle equations. By solving the particle equations, the movement of particles can be obtained, which represents the fluid flows. The SPH method is able to simulate the large deformation and breakup of liquid drops without using additional interface tracking techniques.
Technical Paper

Multiple Steered Axles for Reducing the Rollover Risks of Heavy Articulated Trucks

1988-10-01
881866
This paper presents an analytical study of the performance improvements that can be obtained at both high and low speed using multiple steered axles on heavy articulated trucks. At high speed, rollover usually represents a worst case scenario. Therefore we have chosen to evaluate possible steering designs based on their ability to reduce lateral acceleration of the semitrailer center of gravity. This is in contrast to passenger cars where four-wheel steering has typically been evaluated based on measures that were thought to be related to driver acceptance. This paper also investigates the effects of steering rear tractor axles on the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle. Steering algorithms for the rear tractor tires were evaluated using frequency response and simulation of an obstacle avoidance maneuver. Results indicate that at high speeds considerable reductions in trailer lateral acceleration can be obtained during transient maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Modeling Evaporating Diesel Sprays Using an Improved Gas Particle Model

2013-04-08
2013-01-1598
Accurate modeling of evaporating sprays is critical for diesel engine simulations. The standard spray and evaporation models in KIVA-3V tend to under-predict the vapor penetration, especially at high ambient pressure conditions. A sharp decrease of vapor penetration gradient is observed soon after the liquid spray is completely evaporated due to the lack of momentum sources beyond the liquid spray region. In this study, a gas particle model is implemented in KIVA-3V which tracks the momentum sources resulting from the evaporated spray. Lagrangian tracking of imaginary gas particles is considered until the velocity of the gas particle is comparable to that of the gas phase velocity. The gas particle continuously exchanges momentum with the gas phase and as a result the vapor penetrations are improved. The results using the present gas particle model is compared with experimental data over a wide range of ambient conditions and good levels of agreement are observed in vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

2006-04-03
2006-01-0056
Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Miniature Magnetostrictive Misfire Sensor

1992-02-01
920236
A miniature sensor for detecting cylinder misfiring based on the principle of magnetostriction has been developed for on-board use in production vehicles. The sensor induces a magnetic field in the engine crankshaft, and via Faraday's law, obtains a signal directly related to the strength of the field. Due to magnetostriction, the field strength changes as the stress in the crankshaft changes during each cylinder firing. The output signal of the sensor is therefore high when any given cylinder fires and low when it misfires, permitting ready determination of misfiring. Tests on a manual transmission vehicle have shown that a single sensor can detect misfiring in one or more cylinders at any non-negative torque and any speed, as well as on very rough roads. Other uses for the sensor, such as knock detection, are anticipated.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Practices upon Farm Equipment Design

1968-02-01
680554
New machinery and chemicals which are used to reduce the number of operations needed on the farm and the labor force required to perform them are reviewed from the point of view of the farmer. What types of power units and self-propelled equipment is the farmer interested in when he considers his purchase in the light of his net profits?
Technical Paper

Fuel Effects on the Knocking Limit of a Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981401
This paper reports on an experimental study conducted to determine the effect on the knock limited operating map of a natural gas engine when propane is added to the fuel. The map involves engine parameters such as BMEP, spark timing, equivalence ratio, and propane fraction. The map shows that to maintain its design BMEP, the maximum and minimum equivalence ratios that the engine can operate with natural gas are 0.78 at a timing of 25 degrees BTDC and 0.73 at 20 degrees BTDC, respectively. However, when the propane percentage of the fuel is increased to 15% of the fuel by mass, the maximum and minimum equivalence ratios that the engine can operate are 0.75 and 0.70, respectively, which corresponds to spark timings of 22 and 20 degrees BTDC. The map demonstrates that knock is not a major constraint for typical natural gas. Spark timing retard is limited by the exhaust gas temperature and minimum equivalence ratio is limited by the BMEP requirement of the engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Compositions on Diesel Engine Performance Using Ammonia-DME Mixtures

2013-04-08
2013-01-1133
Various mixtures of ammonia (NH₃) and dimethyl ether (DME) were tested in a diesel engine to explore the feasibility of using ammonia as an alternative, non-carbon fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The original diesel fuel injection system was replaced with a new system for injecting ammonia-DME mixtures into the cylinder directly. The injection pressure was maintained at approximately 206 bar for various fuel mixtures including 100% DME, 60%DME-40%NH₃, and 40%DME-60%NH₃ (by weight). As ammonia content was increased in the fuel mixture, the injection timing needed to be advanced to ensure successful engine operation. It was found that cycle-to-cycle variation increased significantly when 40%DME-60%NH₃ was used. In the meantime, combustion of 40%DME-60%NH₃ exhibited HCCI characteristics as the injection timing ranged from 90 to 340 before top-dead-center (BTDC). Emissions data show that soot emissions remained extremely low for the fuel mixtures tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on the Performance of Large Diesel Engines

2008-04-14
2008-01-1389
Particulate matters, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxides emissions from large utility generators using diesel/biodiesel blends were measured. Stack measurements were performed on-site in a number of power plants by following the standard procedure of US EPA. The test engines were chosen to represent typical diesel engines used for electricity generation in the state. Tests were performed using the regular diesel fuel (B0), 10%, 20% and 100% biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B100). Test results showed that particulate matters and carbon monoxides decreased significantly as biodiesel content increases, whereas nitrogen oxides increased. Test results are consistent with other studies using mobile engines in the literature. Note that arbitrary changes in fuel or engine operating conditions are prohibited in power generation industry. Results of this study have been used by the state government to allow the use of biodiesel blends in stationary generators.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-0485
The simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions form diesel exhaust is key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction of PM and NOx due to improved combustion mechanisms will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil has introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. In this study the performance of different biodiesel blends under low temperature combustion conditions (i.e., high exhaust gas recirculation and advanced fuel injection schemes) was investigated.
Technical Paper

DISI Spray Modeling Using Local Mesh Refinement

2008-04-14
2008-01-0967
The accurate prediction of fuel sprays is critical to engine combustion and emissions simulations. A fine computational mesh is often required to better resolve fuel spray dynamics and vaporization. However, computations with a fine mesh require extensive computer time. This study developed a methodology that uses a locally refined mesh in the spray region. Such adaptive mesh refinement will enable greater resolution of the liquid-gas interaction while incurring only a small increase in the total number of computational cells. The present study uses an h-refinement adaptive method. A face-based approach is used for the inter-level boundary conditions. The prolongation and restriction procedure preserves conservation of properties in performing grid refinement/coarsening. The refinement criterion is based on the mass of spray liquid and fuel vapor in each cell. The efficiency and accuracy of the present adaptive mesh refinement scheme is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0542
Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Augmentation of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Model with Expert Knowledge of Critical Combustion Features for Optimizing a Compression Ignition Engine Using Multiple Injections

2017-03-28
2017-01-0701
The objective of this work was to identify methods of reliably predicting optimum operating conditions in an experimental compression ignition engine using multiple injections. Abstract modeling offered an efficient way to predict large volumes data, when compared with simulation, although the initial cost of constructing such models can be large. This work aims to reduce that initial cost by adding knowledge about the favorable network structures and training rules which are discovered. The data were gathered from a high pressure common rail direct injection turbocharged compression ignition engine utilizing a high EGR configuration. The range of design parameters were relatively large; 100 MPa - 240 MPa for fuel pressure, up to 62% EGR using a modified, long-route, low pressure EGR system, while the pilot timing, main timing, and pilot ratio were free within the safe operating window for the engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

2019-06-10
2019-01-1980
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the very hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant prescribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Layout of DBD Plasma Actuators on Its Anti-/De-Icing Performance for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-2033
Recently developed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-icing systems have shown great potential for aircraft icing mitigation. In the present study, the ice accretion experiments were performed on to evaluate the effects of different layouts of DBD plasma actuators on their anti-/de-icing performances for aircraft icing mitigations. An array of DBD plasma actuators were designed and embedded on the surface of a NACA0012 airfoil/wing model in different layout configurations (i.e., different alignment directions of the plasm actuators (e.g., spanwise vs. streamwise), width of the exposed electrodes and the gap between the electrodes) for the experimental study. The experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISUIRT).
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