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Technical Paper

The Role of Chemically Modified Surfaces in the Construction of Miniaturized Analytical Instrumentation

1993-07-01
932207
This paper describes the development of a thin-film optical sensor for measuring pH. The indicator behaves as a polyprotic acid with differing optical properties in each of its chemical forms. Together, these properties facilitate the development of an internally calibrated sensor by calculating the ratios of the absorption maximas for each form of the indicator. The covalent immobilization procedure developed demonstrated long term stability of 4 months without recalibration.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Droplet Impinging Erosion Characteristics of an Icephobic, Elastic Soft Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1997
Elastic soft material/surface, such as Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), is a perspective, useful and low-cost hydrophobic and icephobic coating. While it has been reported to have good mechanical durability, its erosion durability under the high impacting of water droplets pertinent to aircraft inflight icing phenomena has not been explored. In this study, the droplet imping erosion characteristics of an icephobic PDMS surface/material is evaluated systematically upon the dynamic impinging of water droplets at different impact velocities (~ up to 75m/s), in comparison with other state-of-the-art icephobic materials/surfaces, such as superhydrophobic surface (SHS) and slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS). Surprisingly, the contact angle (CA) of the elastic PDMS is shown to have an over 20° increase (from 105° to 128°), which represents better hydrophobicity, after the erosion test which is mainly contributed to the higher roughness of the eroded PDMS surface.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Layout of DBD Plasma Actuators on Its Anti-/De-Icing Performance for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-2033
Recently developed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-icing systems have shown great potential for aircraft icing mitigation. In the present study, the ice accretion experiments were performed on to evaluate the effects of different layouts of DBD plasma actuators on their anti-/de-icing performances for aircraft icing mitigations. An array of DBD plasma actuators were designed and embedded on the surface of a NACA0012 airfoil/wing model in different layout configurations (i.e., different alignment directions of the plasm actuators (e.g., spanwise vs. streamwise), width of the exposed electrodes and the gap between the electrodes) for the experimental study. The experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISUIRT).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Ice Accretion Processes on Bridge Cables with Different Surface Modifications

2019-06-10
2019-01-2018
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic ice accretion processes on bridge cables with different surface modifications (i.e., 1. Standard plain, 2. Pattern-indented surface, and 3. helical fillets). The icing experiments were performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). In order to reveal the transient ice accretion processes and the associated aerodynamic loadings on the different cable models under the different icing conditions (i.e., rime vs. glaze), while a high-speed imaging system was used to capture the transient details of the surface water transport and ice accretion over the cable surfaces, a high-accuracy dual-transducer force measurement system was also utilized to measure the aerodynamic loadings acting on the ice accreting cable models.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on a Hot-Air-Based Anti-/De-Icing System for the Icing Protection of Aero-Engine Inlet Guide Vanes

2019-06-10
2019-01-2039
In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to characterize a hot-air-based anti-/de-icing system for the icing protection of aero-engine inlet guide vanes(IGVs). The experimental study was conducted in a unique icing research tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISU-IRT). A hollowed IGV model embedded with U-shaped hot-air flowing conduit was designed and manufactured for the experimental investigations. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion or anti-/de-icing process over the surface of the IGV model for the test cases without and with the hot-air supply system being turned on, the corresponding surface temperature distributions on the IGV model were measured quantitatively by using a row of embedded thermocouples.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of a Wind-Driven Water Droplet over the Slippery Liquid Infused Porous Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1951
The promising anti-icing performance of the slippery liquid infused porous surface (SLIPS) has been recently demonstrated for various engineering applications. The runback icing for aircraft and wind turbines could be effectively mitigated considering the timely removal of water droplet by the wind shearing force due to the low adhesion on the SLIPS. In this study, the flow field both inside and around the wind-driven droplet over the SLIPS was experimentally investigated by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Previous studies majorly focus on the internal flow pattern before the droplet incipient motion. In this study, the flow field inside a moving droplet was firstly investigated. As a result of the low surface adhesion of the SLIPS, droplet oscillations were eliminated and the droplet internal flow field could be corrected from the optical distortion.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Study on the Thermodynamic Characteristics of DBD Plasma Actuation and Its Potential for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-2031
Wind turbine icing represents the most significant threat to the integrity of wind turbines in cold weather. Ice formation on wind turbine blades was found to cause significant aerodynamic performance degradation, resulting in a substantial drop in energy production. Recently developed Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems showed very promising effects for aircraft icing mitigation. In this present study, DBD plasma-based anti-/de-icing systems were employed for wind turbine icing mitigation. First, a comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effects of various DBD plasma actuation parameters on its thermodynamic characteristics. An infrared (IR) thermal imaging system is used to quantitatively measure the temperature distributions over the test plate under various test conditions.
Technical Paper

A Novel Heating-Coating Hybrid Strategy for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

2019-06-10
2019-01-2029
The electro-thermal method is most commonly used for wind turbine anti-/de-icing. The upmost drawback of such systems is the high power consumption. In the present study, we proposed to use a durable slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) to effectively reduce the power requirement of the heating element during the anti-/de-icing process. The explorative study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model exposed under severe icing conditions. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was also utilized to achieve the simultaneous surface temperature measurements over the test model.
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