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Technical Paper

Ultra-High Fuel Injection Pressure with Massive EGR to Enable Simultaneous Reduction of Soot and NOx Emissions

In this study both double and triple injection strategies were used with fuel pressures up to 300 and 250 MPa, respectively. Tests were conducted at medium load conditions with cooled, high-pressure EGR at a ratio of 40% and higher. A four-cylinder production engine, featuring double turbochargers with one variable geometry turbocharger, was tested. The double injection strategy consisted of a 20% close-coupled pilot injection while the triple injection strategy introduced a post injection consisting of 10% the total cycle fuel. Results of this study do not indicate an advantage to extreme fuel pressure. The increased air entrainment reduces soot while increasing the premixed burn heat release, mean cylinder temperature, and NOx. Compared to the double injection scheme, triple injections achieved much lower soot for the same EGR rate with only a small NOx penalty.
Technical Paper

Two Zone Combustion Models for Second Law Analysis of Internal Combustion Engines

Second law analyses of both spark-ignition and diesel engines are presented using two-zone models. The analyses include descriptions of the evaluation of the various terms in the availability balance. Chemical and thermomechanical availability are separated using a definition which allows the portion of the fuel availability that can be extracted by a combustion engine to be distinguished from that which requires interaction with the reference environment. The chemical availability must be calculated correctly in order to obtain an availability balance. The diesel model includes a parameter that allows the effect of fuel-air mixing rates to be simulated. The analyses for the spark-ignition and diesel models are applied in a parametric study of the effects of equivalence ratio, fuel-air mixing, residual fraction and combustion duration on the chemical and thermomechanical availability and the irreversibility.
Technical Paper

Trade-Offs Between Emissions and Efficiency for Multiple Injections of Neat Biodiesel in a Turbocharged Diesel Engine Using an Enhanced PSO-GA Optimization Strategy

Particle Swarm and the Genetic Algorithm were coupled to optimize multiple performance metrics for the combustion of neat biodiesel in a turbocharged, four cylinder, John Deere engine operating under constant partial load. The enhanced algorithm was used with five inputs including EGR, injection pressure, and the timing/distribution of fuel between a pilot and main injection. A merit function was defined and used to minimize five output parameters including CO, NOx, PM, HC and fuel consumption simultaneously. The combination of PSO and GA yielded convergence to a Pareto regime without the need for excessive engine runs. Results along the Pareto front illustrate the tradeoff between NOx and particulate matter seen in the literature.
Technical Paper

The Role of Chemically Modified Surfaces in the Construction of Miniaturized Analytical Instrumentation

This paper describes the development of a thin-film optical sensor for measuring pH. The indicator behaves as a polyprotic acid with differing optical properties in each of its chemical forms. Together, these properties facilitate the development of an internally calibrated sensor by calculating the ratios of the absorption maximas for each form of the indicator. The covalent immobilization procedure developed demonstrated long term stability of 4 months without recalibration.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Engine Performance and Engine Starts on Series HEV Operation

This work presents the analytic and experimental results relating engine performance and operating schedule with fuel cost and tail-pipe emissions for the series hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design. Results are based on vehicle data from the electric G-van produced by Conceptor Industries. A computer simulation developed using basic principles predicts the battery demand over a specified vehicle operation profile. Engine tests on the effects of engine power level and number of starts show that while fuel consumption did not vary, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions did show an increase. The engine used was a 2-cylinder, spark ignited, 4-stroke, carbureted engine and did not utilize exhaust after-treatment. The results of the engine tests and simulation data are combined to predict the CO emissions and fuel cost for the series HEV design. The estimated CO output was 18.7 g/km, and the fuel cost was estimated between 4.3 and 4.5 cents/km.
Technical Paper

Quantification of 3D Ice Structures Accreted on a Wind Turbine Airfoil Model

Accurate quantification of 3D shapes of the complex ice structures accreted on wind turbine blades is highly desirable to develop ice prediction models for more accurate prediction of the aerodynamic performance degradation and power reduction due to the ice accretion on wind turbine blades. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to quantitatively characterize the 3D shapes of the ice structures accreted over a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine airfoil model in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT). A glaze icing condition and a rime icing condition that wind turbines usually experience in winter were duplicated by using ISU-IRT. A high-resolution non-intrusive 3D scanning system was used to make detailed 3D-shape measurements to quantify the complicated ice structures accreted on the wind turbine airfoil model as a function of the ice accretion time.
Technical Paper

Predicting Effects of DME on the Operating Range of Natural Gas-Fueled Compression Ignition Engines

Numerical models were used to study the effects of dimethyl ether (DME) on the operation of a compression-ignition engine fueled with premixed natural gas. The models used multi-dimensional engine CFD coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. Combustion characteristics of various compositions of the natural gas and DME mixture were simulated. Results showed that combustion phasing, nitrogen oxides emissions, and effects of fuel compositions on engine operating limits were well predicted. Chemical kinetics analysis indicated that ignition was achieved by DME oxidation, which, in turn, induced natural gas combustion. It was found that low temperature heat release became more significant as DME concentration increased. For an appropriate amount of DME in the mixture, the stable engine operating range became narrower as natural gas concentration increased. The model also captured the low temperature combustion features of the present engine with low nitrogen oxides emissions.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Ice Adhesion Using the Blister Test

Structures in cold weather environments are susceptible to atmospheric ice formation. A fracture mechanics based approach is proposed for in situ characterization of the interfacial fracture energy of ice on different substrates. This paper summarizes the development of the experimental and analytical framework to measure the ice adhesion energy, calibrated on static ice. The testing configuration utilizes a shaft-loaded blister test to produce stable crack propagation, from a well-defined pre-crack at the interface of the ice layer and the substrate. Measurements of the fracture energy are taken over a range of ice thicknesses and surface roughnesses. The developed analytical framework to estimate adhesion energy are verified and calibrated via finite element numerical simulation of the proposed geometric configuration and employing cohesive surfaces along the interface to simulate the crack nucleation and propagation process.
Technical Paper

Modeling Evaporating Diesel Sprays Using an Improved Gas Particle Model

Accurate modeling of evaporating sprays is critical for diesel engine simulations. The standard spray and evaporation models in KIVA-3V tend to under-predict the vapor penetration, especially at high ambient pressure conditions. A sharp decrease of vapor penetration gradient is observed soon after the liquid spray is completely evaporated due to the lack of momentum sources beyond the liquid spray region. In this study, a gas particle model is implemented in KIVA-3V which tracks the momentum sources resulting from the evaporated spray. Lagrangian tracking of imaginary gas particles is considered until the velocity of the gas particle is comparable to that of the gas phase velocity. The gas particle continuously exchanges momentum with the gas phase and as a result the vapor penetrations are improved. The results using the present gas particle model is compared with experimental data over a wide range of ambient conditions and good levels of agreement are observed in vapor penetration.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Journal Article

Microgravity Evaluation of Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction for the Measurement of Total I (Iodine, Iodide, and Triiodide) in Spacecraft Drinking Water

We are developing a drinking water test kit based on colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) for use onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on future Lunar and/or Mars missions. C-SPE involves measuring the change in diffuse reflectance of indicator disks following their exposure to a water sample. We previously demonstrated the effectiveness of C-SPE in measuring iodine in microgravity. This analytical method has now been extended to encompass the measurement of total I (i.e., iodine, iodide, and triiodide). This objective was accomplished by introducing an oxidizing agent to convert iodide and triiodide to iodine, which is then measured using the indicator disks previously developed for iodine. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity tests of this method. The results demonstrate that C-SPE technology is poised to meet the total I monitoring requirements of the international space program.
Technical Paper

Influence of New Practices upon Farm Equipment Design

New machinery and chemicals which are used to reduce the number of operations needed on the farm and the labor force required to perform them are reviewed from the point of view of the farmer. What types of power units and self-propelled equipment is the farmer interested in when he considers his purchase in the light of his net profits?
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Compositions on Diesel Engine Performance Using Ammonia-DME Mixtures

Various mixtures of ammonia (NH₃) and dimethyl ether (DME) were tested in a diesel engine to explore the feasibility of using ammonia as an alternative, non-carbon fuel to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The original diesel fuel injection system was replaced with a new system for injecting ammonia-DME mixtures into the cylinder directly. The injection pressure was maintained at approximately 206 bar for various fuel mixtures including 100% DME, 60%DME-40%NH₃, and 40%DME-60%NH₃ (by weight). As ammonia content was increased in the fuel mixture, the injection timing needed to be advanced to ensure successful engine operation. It was found that cycle-to-cycle variation increased significantly when 40%DME-60%NH₃ was used. In the meantime, combustion of 40%DME-60%NH₃ exhibited HCCI characteristics as the injection timing ranged from 90 to 340 before top-dead-center (BTDC). Emissions data show that soot emissions remained extremely low for the fuel mixtures tested.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on the Performance of Large Diesel Engines

Particulate matters, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxides emissions from large utility generators using diesel/biodiesel blends were measured. Stack measurements were performed on-site in a number of power plants by following the standard procedure of US EPA. The test engines were chosen to represent typical diesel engines used for electricity generation in the state. Tests were performed using the regular diesel fuel (B0), 10%, 20% and 100% biodiesel blends (B10, B20, B100). Test results showed that particulate matters and carbon monoxides decreased significantly as biodiesel content increases, whereas nitrogen oxides increased. Test results are consistent with other studies using mobile engines in the literature. Note that arbitrary changes in fuel or engine operating conditions are prohibited in power generation industry. Results of this study have been used by the state government to allow the use of biodiesel blends in stationary generators.
Technical Paper

Effects of Biodiesel Blends on Emissions in Low Temperature Diesel Combustion

The simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions form diesel exhaust is key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction of PM and NOx due to improved combustion mechanisms will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil has introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. In this study the performance of different biodiesel blends under low temperature combustion conditions (i.e., high exhaust gas recirculation and advanced fuel injection schemes) was investigated.
Journal Article

Diesel Emission Characteristics Using High Injection Pressure with Converging Nozzles in a Medium-Duty Engine

Effects of high injection pressure and converging nozzles on combustion and emissions of a multi-cylinder diesel engine were investigated. The engine uses a common-rail injection system that allows a maximum injection pressure of 200 MPa. Various injection pressures were tested to explore the benefits of high injection pressure in achieving low exhaust emissions in diesel engines. Injectors used in this study include conventional straight-hole nozzles and converging nozzles with a K factor of 3. Parametric studies were performed including variations in injection timings, number of injection pulses and EGR levels. It was found that low temperature combustion can be achieved by using high EGR with 1) late single injection or 2) double injection with an early pilot and a late main injection. Investigations revealed that high injection pressures significantly reduced soot emissions with an increase in NOx emissions under conventional injection timing ranges.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of a Diesel Engine Calibration Using a Novel SVM-PSO Method

Accelerated computational optimization of a diesel engine calibration was achieved by combining Support Vector Regression models with the Particle Swarm Optimization routine. The framework utilized a full engine simulation as a surrogate for a real engine test with test parameters closely resembling a typical 4.5L diesel engine. Initial tests were run with multi-modal test problems including Rastragin's, Bukin's, Ackely's, and Schubert's functions which informed the ML model tuning hyper-parameters. To improve the performance of the engine the hybrid approach was used to optimize the Fuel Pressure, Injection Timing, Pilot Timing and Fraction, and EGR rate. Nitrogen Oxides, Particulate Matter, and Specific Fuel Consumption are simultaneously reduced. As expected, optimums reflect a late injection strategy with moderately high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction Technology for Water Quality Monitoring: Evaluation of C-SPE and Debubbling Methods in Microgravity

Colorimetric-solid phase extraction (C-SPE) is being developed as a method for in-flight monitoring of spacecraft water quality. C-SPE is based on measuring the change in the diffuse reflectance spectrum of indicator disks following exposure to a water sample. Previous microgravity testing has shown that air bubbles suspended in water samples can cause uncertainty in the volume of liquid passed through the disks, leading to errors in the determination of water quality parameter concentrations. We report here the results of a recent series of C-9 microgravity experiments designed to evaluate manual manipulation as a means to collect bubble-free water samples of specified volumes from water sample bags containing up to 47% air. The effectiveness of manual manipulation was verified by comparing the results from C-SPE analyses of silver(I) and iodine performed in-flight using samples collected and debubbled in microgravity to those performed on-ground using bubble-free samples.
Technical Paper

Colorimetric-Solid Phase Extraction (C-SPE): In-Flight Methodologies for the Facile Determination of Trace Level Indicators of Water Quality

At present, spacecraft water quality is assessed when samples collected on the International Space Station (ISS) are returned to Earth. Several months, however, may pass between sample collection and analysis, potentially compromising sample integrity by risking degradation. For example, iodine and silver, which are the respective biocides used in the U.S. and Russian spacecraft potable water systems, must be held at levels that prevent bacterial growth, while avoiding adverse effects on crew health. A comparable need exists for the detection of many heavy metals, toxic organic compounds, and microorganisms. Lead, cadmium, and nickel have been found, for instance, in the ISS potable water system at amounts that surpass existent requirements. There have been similar occurrences with hazardous organic compounds like formaldehyde and ethylene glycol. Microorganism counts above acceptable limits have also been reported in a few instances.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mode-II Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Ice/Metal Interfaces

Airborne, marine and ground structures are vulnerable to atmospheric icing in cold weather operation conditions. Most of the ice adhesion-related work have focused on the mechanical ice removal strategies because of practical considerations, while limited literature is available for fundamental understanding of the ice adhesion process. Here, we present a fracture mechanics-based approach to characterize interfacial fracture parameters for the shear behavior of a typical ice/aluminum interface. An experimental framework employing two complementary tests (1) lap shear and (2) shear push-out tests was introduced to assess the mode-II fracture parameters for the selected aluminum/ice interface. Both analytical (shear-lag analysis) and numerical (finite element analysis incorporating cohesive zone method) models were used to evaluate shear fracture parameters.