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Journal Article

Using 2d Infrared Imaging for the Analysis of Non-Conventional Fuels Combustion in a Diesel Engine

The common realization of the necessity to reduce the use of mineral sources is promoting the use of alternative fuels. Big efforts are being made to replace petroleum derivatives in the internal combustion engines (ICEs). For this purpose it is mandatory to evaluate the behavior of non-conventional fuels in the ICEs. The optical diagnostics have proven to be a powerful tool to analyze the processes that take place inside the engine. In particular, 2d imaging in the infrared range can reveal new details about the effect of the fuel properties since this technique is still not very common. In this work, a comparison between commercial diesel fuel and two non-conventional fuels has been made in an optically accessible diesel engine. The non-conventional fuels are: the first generation biofuel Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) and an experimental blend of diesel and a fuel with high glycerol content (HG).
Journal Article

Spray Formation and Combustion Analysis in an Optical Single Cylinder Engine Operating with Fresh and Aged Biodiesel

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized RME at two levels of blending on spray formation and combustion in modern automotive diesel engines. The tests were performed on an optical single-cylinder engine sharing combustion system configuration with the 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application. Two blends (B50 and B100) blending were tested for both fresh and aged RME and compared with commercial diesel fuel in two different operating points typical of NEDC (1500rpm/2bar BMEP and 2000rpm/5bar BMEP). The experimental activity was devoted to an in-depth investigation of the spray density, breakup and penetration, mixture formation, combustion and soot formation, by means of optical techniques.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Injection Process in a Research CR Diesel Engine using Different Blends of Propane-Diesel Fuel

Blends of propane-diesel fuel can be used in direct injection diesel engines to improve the air-fuel mixing and the premixed combustion phase, and to reduce pollutant emissions. The potential benefits of usinf propane in diesel engines are both environmental and economic; furthermore, its use does not require changes to the compression ratio of conventional diesel engines. The present paper describes an experimental investigation of the injection process for different liquid preformed blends of propane-diesel fuel in an optically accessible Common Rail diesel engine. Slight modifications of the injection system were required in order to operate with a blend of propane-diesel fuel. Pure diesel fuel and two propane-diesel mixtures at different mass ratios were tested (20% and 40% in mass of propane named P20 and P40). First, injection in air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were performed to verify the functionality of the modified Common Rail injection system.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel-LPG Blends

Recently, it has been worth pointing out the relevance of alternative fuels in the improvement of air quality conditions and in the mitigation of global warming. In order to deal with these demands, in recent studies, it has been considered a great variety of alternative fuels. It goes without saying that the alternative fuels industry needs the best of the efficiency with a moderate layout. From this perspective, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) could represent a valid option, although it is not a renewable fuel. In terms of polluting emissions, the LPG can reduce nitrous oxides and smoke concentrations in the air, a capability that has a relevant importance for the modern pollution legislation. LPG is well known as an alternative fuel for Spark Ignition (SI) engines and, more recently, LPG systems have also been introduced in the Compression Ignition (CI) engines in dual-fuel configuration.
Technical Paper

Coking Effect of Different FN Nozzles on Injection and Combustion in an Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

Interest on the issue of diesel injector nozzle deposits is rising in the last years due to its effects on engine performance. The alteration of nozzles geometry can cause a difference in fuel mass flow and influence smoke emission. Investigation on the effects of nozzle coking in a diesel injector has been the topic of this paper. The experiments have been carried out in a single cylinder optical engine operating in premixed mode. The head of a Euro 5 production engine has been mounted on an elongated cylinder and the production CR injection system has been used. A sapphire window has been set in the piston head in order to have visible access to phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber. Three injectors with decreasing flow number (FN) have been tested. Engine has been fed with commercial diesel fuel. High spatial and temporal resolution camera has been used for the acquisition of in-cylinder injection and combustion images.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion and Emissions of a Propane-Diesel Blend in a Research Diesel Engine

The interest of the vehicle producers in fulfillment emission legislations without adopting after treatment systems is driving to the use of non-conventional energy sources for modern engines. A previous test campaign dealing with the use of blends of diesel and propane in a CI engine has pointed out the potential of this non-conventional fuel for diesel engines. The soft adaptation of the common rail injection system and the potential benefits, in terms of engine performances and pollutant emissions, encourage the use of propane-diesel blends if an optimization of the injection strategies is performed. In this work, the performances of a propane-diesel mixture in a research diesel engine have been investigated. The injection strategies of Euro 5 calibration have been used as reference for the development of optimized strategies. The aim of the optimization process was to ensure the same engine power output and reduce the pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Combustion and Emissions in Light-Duty Diesel Engines Using High-Glycerol-Ethers/Diesel Blends

In this paper, a detailed analysis of combustion and emissions is carried out on both metal and optical light duty diesel engines equipped with up-to-date combustion architecture. Both engines were fed with glycerol ethers mixture (GEM) in blend (10% and 20% v/v) within a commercial diesel fuel. The engines ran in significant operating points in the NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) emission homologation area. The results of the experimental campaign on the metal engine show comparable performances between the diesel/GEM blends and the diesel fuel and demonstrate benefits mainly in terms of soot production. The exhaust particles diameters of diesel/GEM blends shift toward smaller dimensions and the total number decreases. Moreover, at lower load conditions, the outputs show a worsening of the unburnt mainly ascribable to the fuel characteristics.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel technology has the potential to offer significant improvements in the emissions of carbon dioxide from light-duty compression ignition engines. The dual-fuel (diesel/natural gas) concept represents a possible solution to reduce emissions from diesel engines by using natural gas (methane) as an alternative fuel. Methane was injected in the intake manifold while the diesel oil was injected directly into the engine. The present work describes the results of a numerical study on combustion process of a common rail diesel engine supplied with natural gas and diesel oil. In particular, the aim is to study the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount on both pollutant emissions and combustion evolution. The study of dual-fuel engines that is carried out in this paper aims at the evaluation of the CFD potential, by a 3-dimensional code, to predict the main features of this technology.
Technical Paper

1D Modeling of Alternative Fuels Spray in a Compression Ignition Engine Using Injection Rate Shaping Strategy

The Injection Rate Shaping consists in a novel injection strategy to control air-fuel mixing quality via a suitable variation of injection timing that affects the injection rate profile. This strategy has already provided to be useful to increase combustion efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions in the modern compression ignition engines fed with fossil Diesel fuel. But nowadays, the ever more rigorous emission targets are enhancing a search for alternative fuels and/or new blends to replace conventional ones, leading, in turn, a change in the air-fuel mixture formation. In this work, a 1D model of spray injection aims to investigate the combined effects of both Injection Rate Shaping and alternative fuels on the air-fuel mixture formation in a compression ignition engine. In a first step, a ready-made model for conventional injection strategies has been set up for the Injection Rate Shaping.