Regulated and Unregulated Emissions Reduction with Retrofit Catalytic After-Treatment on Small Two Stroke S.I. Engine
The contribution to environmental pollution due to mopeds and motorcycles equipped with 2-stroke engines is very high. Then European regulations will impose in the next future severe limits on pollutant emissions of such vehicles. Up to 40% of the charge at high load and low speed can be lost during scavenging, therefore exhaust hydrocarbon speciation is similar to fuel composition, i.e. with a comparable content of benzene. The use of rich air-fuel mixtures, necessary to reduce cyclic variations and improve driveability during transients, determines also high carbon monoxide emissions. On the other hand NOx emissions are very low in all operating conditions, due to the rich mixtures and the high residual gas fraction. An effective solution to reduce emissions from current two-stroke engines for two wheelers in a short time could be retrofitting circulating vehicles with a catalyst for exhaust after-treatment.