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Journal Article

Whirl of Crankshaft Rear End, Part 2: an L4-Cylinder Diesel Engine

Since the sizes of the flywheel and clutch have been enlarged due to downsizing of diesel engines, the mass and moment of inertia at the crankshaft rear end have increased. Consequently, the serious bending stresses have appeared in the crankshaft rear. This paper describes the characteristics of those serious bending stresses, based on the mechanism for whirl resonance. The whirl resonance is largely impacted by the mass of the flywheel and clutch and by the distance from the crank-journal center of the rear end to the center of gravity of the flywheel and clutch.
Technical Paper

Influence of Scanning Conditions on Properties of Electron Beam Hardening

There are many methods for case hardening such as conventional induction hardening and newly developed electron beam hardening. Electron beam hardening has been adopted in Isuzu and the reliability of engines has been improved. The beam power of the electron beam hardening equipment used was 6 kW. Various conditions of electron beam were scanned across specimens (SCM435H) in order to investigate the influence on hardening properties. As a result, relation between case depth and beam current and relation between case depth and beam scanning time were confirmed. And when the depth exceeded 1 mm, there were cracks in surface melted area. Electron beam hardening was applied to tappets according to the above fundamental experiments, and uniformly hardened layers were obtained. Durability of engines with electron beam hardened tappets was improved twice as much as those with non-hardened tappets.
Technical Paper

Influence of Material and Mechanical Properties on Thermal Fatigue Life of Aluminum Castings

There is ever an increasing need for weight reduction and high performance of engine (clean smoke and improving fuel economy) To achieve this, recently aluminum castings are used for engine parts such as cylinder heads that construct combustion chamber and are required thermal resistance. This paper describes thermal fatigue tests of aluminum castings that are made under various conditions of cooling rate during solidification, heat treatment, and chemical compositions. It further investigates the influence of material (such as cooling rate, chemical conmposition and heat treatment) and mechanical properties (such as σB, δ, E ) on thermal fatigue life of aluminum castings.
Technical Paper

Increase in fatigue life of gears hardened by contour induction using double shot peening

Countour Induction Hardening (CIH) method is in the limelight as a new possible surface refining method for gears as it reduces quenching distortion considerably and increases compressive residual stress. Also, Double Shot Peening (DSP) method, especially its advanced technique of using extensively small shots (less than 100 m) at the secondary peening, enables increased compressive residual stress under the surface of the gears. Therefore, the new Compound Surface Refining Method of using CIH + DSP is expected to give much higher compressive residual stress than the conventional methods. On studying the application of this new method, the authors evaluated their surface-refining characteristics and the fatigue limits.
Technical Paper

Cornering Ability Analysis Based on Vehicle Dynamics System

Equations of motion with six degrees of freedom are composed of detailed dimensions of vehicle, suspension, steering and tire, which must be determined at the designing stage. Particularly, in the dyamics of suspension system, the hypothesis of fixed roll axis are excluded. And, instead, the effect of side force which affects rolling and vertical motion of the vehicle is introduced on the basis of geometrical variation of the tire's contact points. In addition, a number of equations including the cornering force of tire are treated in nonlinear method, with the effect of driving and braking forces being taken into account at the same time. This analysis has enabled strict interpretation of cornering characteristics. However this article is devoted mainly to the analysis of various phenomena which take place in critical situations responsible for accidents in cornering, resultant from spin-out, drift-out, wheel-lift (jack-up) and roll-over.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting and Improving NVH and Stress in Operating Crankshaft Using Nonlinear Vibration Analysis

Vibration behavior of a crankshaft in operation is complicated and difficult to simulate because of oil effects on journals, coupled vibration of crankshaft system parts, combustion and inertia acting on the crankshaft. Particularly, the stiffness and damping of oil film vary with crank angles and thus the numerical analysis must deal with nonlinear vibration. This oil film effects also diversify the vibration modes of the crankshat; the vibration modes in an actual operation differs from that in statically experiment modal analysis. This paper describes a new method developed by the author to analyses, predict, and reduce noise and vibration using several techniques including numerical simulation, finite element method, Sommerfeld concept on oil film effects, and modal frequency response.