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Journal Article

Water Ingress Analysis and Splash Protection Evaluation for Vehicle Wading using Non-Classical CFD Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1327
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
Technical Paper

Wading Simulation - Challenges and Solutions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0936
Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modelling.
Journal Article

Ultra Boost for Economy: Extending the Limits of Extreme Engine Downsizing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1185
The paper discusses the concept, design and final results from the ‘Ultra Boost for Economy’ collaborative project, which was part-funded by the Technology Strategy Board, the UK's innovation agency. The project comprised industry- and academia-wide expertise to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce engine capacity by 60% and still achieve the torque curve of a modern, large-capacity naturally-aspirated engine, while encompassing the attributes necessary to employ such a concept in premium vehicles. In addition to achieving the torque curve of the Jaguar Land Rover naturally-aspirated 5.0 litre V8 engine (which included generating 25 bar BMEP at 1000 rpm), the main project target was to show that such a downsized engine could, in itself, provide a major proportion of a route towards a 35% reduction in vehicle tailpipe CO2 on the New European Drive Cycle, together with some vehicle-based modifications and the assumption of stop-start technology being used instead of hybridization.
Technical Paper

The Use of Intumescent Coatings with Polymer Composites for High Temperature Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0713
To meet corporate CO2 emission targets polymer composites are being explored for light-weighting vehicle applications. Operational requirements may demand that such materials function above glass transition temperatures or heat deflection points. Intumescent coatings are traditionally used in construction to protect steelwork during fire. This paper presents a novel experimental investigation of two intumescent technologies to thermally protect a reinforced polyamide, for use as a semi-structural vehicle component. Coatings were assessed against the thermal requirement to withstand 500°C for 10 minutes. The differences in performance observed between water and epoxy based coatings as well as when an insulation layer was introduced are reported. Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) and modulus values were obtained at −40°C, ambient, and 85°C for uncoated specimens before and after thermal cycling.
Journal Article

The Effects of Unsteady On-Road Flow Conditions on Cabin Noise: Spectral and Geometric Dependence

2011-04-12
2011-01-0159
The in-cabin sound pressure level response of a vehicle in yawed wind conditions can differ significantly between the smooth flow conditions of the aeroacoustic wind tunnel and the higher turbulence, transient flow conditions experienced on the road. Previous research has shown that under low turbulence conditions there is close agreement between the variation with yaw of in-cabin sound pressure level on the road and in the wind tunnel. However, under transient conditions, sound pressure levels on the road were found to show a smaller increase due to yaw than predicted by the wind tunnel, specifically near the leeward sideglass region. The research presented here investigates the links between transient flow and aeroacoustics. The effect of small geometry changes upon the aeroacoustic response of the vehicle has been investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Unsteady On-Road Flow Conditions on Cabin Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-0289
At higher speeds aerodynamic noise tends to dominate the overall noise inside the passenger compartment. Large-scale turbulent conditions experienced on the road can generate different noise characteristics from those under steady-state conditions experienced in an acoustic wind tunnel. The objective of this research is to assess the relationship between on-road flow conditions and the sound pressure level in the cabin. This research, covering links between the unsteady airflow around the vehicle and aeroacoustic effects, is a natural progression from previous aerodynamic studies. On-road testing was undertaken using a current production vehicle equipped with a mobile data logging system. Testing was carried out on major roads at typical highway speeds, where wind noise is very significant. Of particular interest are high-yaw conditions, which can lead to a blustering phenomenon.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Unsteady Flow Conditions on Vehicle in Cabin and External Noise Generation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1555
A vehicle driving on the road experiences unsteady flow conditions which are not generally reproduced in the development environment. This paper investigates the potential importance of this difference to aeroacoustics and hence to occupant perception and proposes a methodology to enable better ranking of designs by taking account of wind noise modulation. Two approaches of reproducing the effects of unsteady wind on aeroacoustics were investigated: an active wind tunnel Turbulence Generation System (TGS) and a quasi-steady approach based on measurements at a series of fixed yaw angles. A number of tools were used to investigate the onset flow and its impacts, including roof-mounted probe, acoustic heads and surface microphones. External noise measurements help to reveal the response of separate exterior noise sources to yaw.
Journal Article

The Effect of Passive Base Ventilation on the Aerodynamic Drag of a Generic SUV Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1548
Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) typically have a blunt rear end shape (for design and practicality), however this is not beneficial for aerodynamic drag. Drag can be reduced by a number of passive and active methods such as tapering and blowing into the base. In an effort to combine these effects and to reduce the drag of a visually square geometry slots have been introduced in the upper side and roof trailing edges of a squareback geometry, to take air from the freestream and passively injects it into the base of the vehicle to effectively create a tapered body. This investigation has been conducted in the Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale generic SUV model. The basic aerodynamic effect of a range of body tapers and straight slots have been assessed for 0° yaw. This includes force and pressure measurements for most configurations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Non-Ideal Vapour-Liquid Equilibrium and Non-Ideal Liquid Diffusion on Multi-Component Droplet Evaporation for Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0924
A model for the evaporation of a multi-component fuel droplet is presented that takes account of temperature dependent fuel and vapour properties, evolving droplet internal temperature distribution and composition, and enhancement to heat and mass transfer due to droplet motion. The effect on the internal droplet mixing of non-ideal fluid diffusion is accounted for. Activity coefficients for vapour-liquid equilibrium and diffusion coefficients are determined using the UNIFAC method. Both well-mixed droplet evaporation (assuming infinite liquid mass diffusivity) and liquid diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation (iteratively solving the multi-component diffusion equation) have been considered. Well-mixed droplet evaporation may be applicable with slow evaporation, for example early gasoline direct injection; diffusion-controlled droplet evaporation must be considered when faster evaporation is encountered, for example when injection is later, or when the fuel mixture is non-ideal.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Base Bleed and Rear Cavities on the Drag of an SUV

2010-04-12
2010-01-0512
Two methods of passive flow control were investigated to determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag on large Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs). Passive means of flow control were selected since all active methods require the input of additional energy (e.g., pressurized fluids or electrical energy). The selected methods were base bleed and the use of a rear cavity, and various combinations of these were experimentally tested in full-scale wind tunnels with and without a moving belt/rotating wheel assembly. Aerodynamic drag reduction was accomplished by restructuring the low-pressure wake directly behind the vehicle. External cavity depths ranging from d/h=0.17 to 0.83 were used, while body cavity depths ranged from d/h=0 to 0.83, where the depth of the cavity d is non-dimensionalized by the height h of the base area.
Video

The Challenges of Electrification in Premium Luxury Vehicles

2012-03-27
JLR is on track to develop stop-start, parallel hybrid and plug-in parallel hybrid vehicles in the next few years. Plug-in hybridization is arguably the most suitable technology for large, premium luxury vehicles for the foreseeable future. Range_e is a UK based demonstrator for a plug-in hybrid system and has brought into sharp focus the attribute issues and wider challenges that need to be taken into consideration when moving towards production. Presenter Paul Bostock, Jaguar Land Rover
Journal Article

SuperGen on Ultraboost: Variable-Speed Centrifugal Supercharging as an Enabling Technology for Extreme Engine Downsizing

2015-04-14
2015-01-1282
The paper discusses investigations into improving the full-load and transient performance of the Ultraboost extreme downsizing engine by the application of the SuperGen variable-speed centrifugal supercharger. Since its output stage speed is decoupled from that of the crankshaft, SuperGen is potentially especially attractive in a compound pressure-charging system. Such systems typically comprise a turbocharger, which is used as the main charging device, compounded at lower charge mass flow rates by a supercharger used as a second boosting stage. Because of its variable drive ratio, SuperGen can be blended in and out continuously to provide seamless driveability, as opposed to the alternative of a clutched, single-drive-ratio positive-displacement device. In this respect its operation is very similar to that of an electrically-driven compressor, although it is voltage agnostic and can supply other hybrid functionality, too.
Technical Paper

State of the Art Water Wading Simulation Method to Design Under-Body Components

2015-01-14
2015-26-0188
Vehicle water wading capability refers to vehicle functional part integrity (e.g. engine under-tray, bumper cover, plastic sill cover etc.) when travelling through water. Wade testing involves vehicles being driven through different depths of water at various speeds. The test is repeated and under-body functional parts are inspected afterwards for damage. Lack of CAE capability for wading equates to late detection of failure modes which inevitably leads to expensive design change, and potentially affects program timing. It is thus of paramount importance to have a CAE capability in this area to give design loads to start with. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software is used to model a vehicle travelling through water at various speeds. A non-classical CFD approach was deemed necessary to model this. To validate the method, experimental testing with a simplified block was done and then verified with CFD modeling.
Journal Article

Simulation of Rear and Body Side Vehicle Soiling by Road Sprays Using Transient Particle Tracking

2013-04-08
2013-01-1256
Numerical simulations have proven to be effective tools for the aerodynamic design of vehicles, helping to reduce drag, improve cooling flows, and balance aerodynamic lift. Aeroacoustic simulations can also be performed; these can give guidance on how design changes may affect the noise level within the cabin. However, later in the development process it may be discovered that soiling management issues, for example, necessitate design changes. These may have adverse consequences for noise or require extra expense in the form of technological counter-measures (i.e. hydrophobic glass). Performing soiling simulations can allow these potential issues to be addressed earlier in the design process. One of the areas where simulation can be particularly useful is in the prediction of soiling due to wheel spray.
Journal Article

Simulation of Rear Glass and Body Side Vehicle Soiling by Road Sprays

2011-04-12
2011-01-0173
Numerical simulation of aerodynamics for vehicle development is used to meet a wide range of performance targets, including aerodynamic drag for fuel efficiency, cooling flow rates, and aerodynamic lift for vehicle handling. The aerodynamic flow field can also be used to compute the advection of small particles such as water droplets, dust, dirt, sand, etc., released into the flow domain, including the effects of mass, gravity, and the forces acting on the particles by the airflow. Previous efforts in this topic have considered the water sprays ejected by rotating wheels when driving on a wet road. The road spray carries dirt particles and can obscure the side and rear glazing. In this study, road sprays are considered in which the effects of additional water droplets resulting from splashing and dripping of particles from the wheel house and rear under body are added to help understand the patterns of dirt film accumulation on the side glass and rear glass.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Regulated Two-stage Downsized SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2550
The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
Technical Paper

Sand Dune Impact Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1318
Robustness to sand dune impact is one of the key requirements for Jaguar Land Rover products. Historically off road vehicles were built on a ladder sub frame; and the steel cross beam at the front provided robust protection for the cooling pack. With the move to monocoque construction, the cooling pack became vulnerable to low speed grounding damage. Unfortunately this vulnerability is not confirmed until later in the program when fully representative vehicles are available, which results in late engineering changes that are expensive, time consuming and stressful. Like all late changes it is rarely optimised for cost and weight. With no historic literature or procedure available, the challenge was to model the physics of sand media and also solve the complex multi-physics problem of impact of the whole vehicle with the sand dune.
Technical Paper

SEA Wind Noise Load Case for Ranking Vehicle Form Changes

2011-05-17
2011-01-1707
Vehicle manufacturers demand early design assessment of vehicle wind noise attribute so as to eliminate engineering waste induced by late design changes. Vehicle wind noise attribute can be simulated with a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model using exterior surface turbulence pressure on the vehicle greenhouse panel as the wind noise load. One important application of SEA wind noise model is the wind noise assessment for vehicle form design. Vehicle form optimization for wind noise plays an important role in lightweight vehicle architecture, since that reduction in the wind noise load will compensate the loss of vehicle body acoustic attenuation caused by down-gauge glazing and body panels. In this paper, two SEA wind noise load cases currently used in vehicle SEA wind noise modeling have been analyzed and evaluated against vehicle measurements.
Technical Paper

SEA Modeling of Vehicle Wind Noise and Load Case Representation

2007-05-15
2007-01-2304
Vehicle wind noise is becoming increasingly important to customer satisfaction. Early wind noise assessment is critical to get things right during the early design phase. In this paper, SEA modeling technique is used to predict vehicle interior noise caused by the exterior turbulence. Measured surface turbulence pressures over vehicle greenhouse panels are applied as wind noise load. SEA representation of wind noise load case is investigated. It has been found that current SEA wind noise load case over-estimates at frequencies below window glass coincident frequency. A new concept of noise source pole index is introduced and a new wind noise load coupling has been developed. Comparison with vehicle wind tunnel measurements shows that the proposed load case significantly improved prediction accuracy.
Journal Article

Robustness Testing of Real-Time Automotive Systems Using Sequence Covering Arrays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1228
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
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