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Technical Paper

The Use of Intumescent Coatings with Polymer Composites for High Temperature Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0713
To meet corporate CO2 emission targets polymer composites are being explored for light-weighting vehicle applications. Operational requirements may demand that such materials function above glass transition temperatures or heat deflection points. Intumescent coatings are traditionally used in construction to protect steelwork during fire. This paper presents a novel experimental investigation of two intumescent technologies to thermally protect a reinforced polyamide, for use as a semi-structural vehicle component. Coatings were assessed against the thermal requirement to withstand 500°C for 10 minutes. The differences in performance observed between water and epoxy based coatings as well as when an insulation layer was introduced are reported. Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) and modulus values were obtained at −40°C, ambient, and 85°C for uncoated specimens before and after thermal cycling.
Journal Article

Octane Appetite: The Relevance of a Lower Limit to the MON Specification in a Downsized, Highly Boosted DISI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2718
Market demand for high performance gasoline vehicles and increasingly strict government emissions regulations are driving the development of highly downsized, boosted direct injection engines. The in-cylinder temperatures and pressures of these emerging technologies tend to no longer adhere to the test conditions defining the RON and MON octane rating scales. This divergence between fuel knock rating methods and fuel performance in modern engines has previously led to the development of an engine and operating condition dependent scaling factor, K, which allows for extrapolation of RON and MON values. Downsized, boosted DISI engines have been generally shown to have negative K-values when knock limited, indicating a preference for fuels of higher sensitivity and challenging the relevance of a lower limit to the MON specification.
Technical Paper

Observation of Flow Asymmetry Over the Rear of Notchback Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-0900
This paper presents a series of observations of time-averaged wake asymmetry for a range of “notchback” vehicle geometries. The primary focus is on a reduced scale experiment using full-sized saloon geometry. Substantial flow asymmetry was observed in the vehicle “notch”. Similar asymmetries are reported for a full scale experiment on the same geometry along with others as diverse as production models of a luxury and mid-sized saloon; basic car shapes and a simple body. In one case a physical explanation is proposed, based on the degeneration of an unstable symmetric wake structure.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of DMF and Gasoline Spray and Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1592
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Assurance for Justifying Automotive Functional Safety

2010-04-12
2010-01-0209
With the growing complexity of, and reliance on, safety-related electrical/electronic (E/E) systems in the automotive sector, the development of an explicit safety case is highly recommended to provide assurance to the different stakeholders interested in automotive functional safety. The production of a safety case is explicitly mandated by the draft automotive functional safety standard ISO26262. A safety case should consider all organisational and technical factors that may contribute to safety. For example, it should provide assurance for the safe behaviours of a particular system as well as assurance for the process by which this system is developed, operated and maintained. In this paper, we address one component of the overall safety case, namely the assurance of the functional safety concept. In particular, we examine how model-driven development and assessment can provide a basis for the systematic generation of functional safety requirements.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of DMF- Isooctane Blends using PDPA

2014-04-01
2014-01-1408
Little research has been done on spray characteristics of 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), since the breakthrough in its production method as an alternative fuel candidate. In this paper, the spray characteristics of pure fuels (DMF, Isooctane) and DMF-Isooctane blends under different ambient pressures (1 bar, 3 bar and 7 bar) and injection pressures (50 bar, 100 bar and 150 bar) were studied using Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) and high speed imaging. Droplet velocity, size distribution, spray angle and penetration of sprays were examined. Based on the results, DMF had larger SMD and penetration length than isooctane. The surface tension of fuel strongly influenced spray characteristics. Increasing the surface tension by 26 % resulted in 12 % increase in SMD. Higher ambient pressure increased the drag force, but SMD was not influenced by the increased drag force. However, the increased ambient pressure reduced the injection velocity and We number resulting in higher SMD.
Technical Paper

Effect of Setting Velocity on Self-Piercing Riveting Process and Joint Behaviour for Automotive Applications

2010-04-12
2010-01-0966
The increased application of lightweight materials, such as aluminium has initiated many investigations into new joining techniques for aluminium alloys. As a result, Self-piercing riveting (SPR) was introduced into the automotive industry as the major production process to join aluminium sheet body structures. Although both hydraulic and servo types of SPR equipment are used by the industry, the servo type is most commonly used in a volume production environment. This type uses stored rotational inertia to set the rivet. The initial rotational velocity of the mass dictates the setting force and hence the tool is described as velocity-controlled. A study was therefore conducted to examine the effect of setting velocity on the process including tooling and joint performance. It was found that the setting velocity would have a significant effect on tooling life. Over 80kN force could be introduced into the tooling depending on selection of the setting velocity.
Journal Article

Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B and AE44 Cast Magnesium Alloys and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation and Fatigue Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0969
Light weight alloys are widely used in the automotive industry in order to meet environmental requirements. Cast magnesium alloys are candidate materials due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and excellent castability. However, some previously reported anomalous cyclic stress-strain behaviours of magnesium alloys have not been fully investigated especially in LCF characterisation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the cyclic loading-unloading behaviour of high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B and AE44 magnesium alloys under uniaxial tension or/and compression and its effect on LCF behaviour. It was found that classical linear stress-strain behaviour, for both AM60B and AE44 alloys, applied only to a very small range of stress beyond which significant pseudo-elastic behaviour was discovered. This affected LCF characterisation and subsequent fatigue analysis processes.
Technical Paper

Adding Depth: Establishing 3D Display Fundamentals for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0147
The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Technical Paper

Accurate Model Based Hardware-in-the-Loop Test for a Windscreen Wiper System

2012-04-16
2012-01-1164
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have long been used to test electronic control units (ECUs) and software in car manufacturers. It provides an effective platform to the rapid development process of the ECU control algorithms and accommodates the added complexity of the plant under control. Accurate Model based HIL simulation (AMHIL) is considered as a most efficient and cost effective way for exploration of new designs and development of new products, particularly in calibration and parameterization of vehicle stability controllers. The work presented in the paper is to develop a mathematical model of a windscreen wiper system for the purpose of conducting HIL vehicle test and eventually to replace the real component with the model for cost cutting and improved test efficiency. The model is developed based on the electro-mechanical engineering principles.
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