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Technical Paper

Validity of Low Ventilation for Accident Processing with Hydrogen Leakage from Hydrogen-Fuelled Vehicle

Appropriate emergency response information is required for first responder before hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will become widespread. This paper investigates experimentally the hydrogen dispersion in the vicinity of a vehicle which accidentally releases hydrogen horizontally with a single volumetric flow of 2000 NL/min in the under-floor section while varying cross and frontal wind effects. This hydrogen flow rate represents normally a full throttle power condition. Forced wind was about maximum 2 m/s. The results indicated that the windward side of the vehicle was safe but that there were chiefly two areas posing risks of fire by hydrogen ignition. One was the leeward side of the vehicle's underbody where a larger region of flammable hydrogen dispersion existed in light wind than in windless conditions. The other was the area around the hydrogen leakage point where most of the leaked hydrogen remained undiffused in an environment with a wind of no stronger than 2 m/s.
Journal Article

Validation of the Localized Fire Test Method for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Systems

The localized fire test provided in the Global Technical Regulation for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles gives two separate test methods: the ‘generic installation test - Method 1′ and the ‘specific vehicle installation test - Method 2′. Vehicle manufacturers are required to apply either of the two methods. Focused on Method 2, the present study was conducted to determine the characteristics and validity of Method 2. Test results under identical burner flame temperature conditions and the effects of cylinder protection covers made of different materials were compared between Method 1 and Method 2.
Technical Paper

Thermal Behavior in Hydrogen Storage Tank for Fuel Cell Vehicle on Fast Filling

The current hydrogen storage systems for fuel-cell vehicles are mainly a compressed hydrogen storage type, but it is known that the temperature inside the tank commonly increases while the tank is being filled with hydrogen. This study examines filling methods that prevent the temperature from exceeding the designed temperature of the tank. In order to propose a filling method that suppresses the temperature rise inside the tank and achieves filling within a short time, fast-filling tests were conducted on test tanks designed for fast filling of fuel cell vehicles. The detailed influences of the differences in type of tank and filling pressure on the rate of the internal temperature increase were investigated. Thermal responses were measured at various parts inside and outside the tank while varying the filling pressure, type of tank, tank capacity, filling time, and filling pattern, using a test tank that allows multi-point measurement of the internal temperature.
Technical Paper

Simulation Techniques for Determining Motorcycle Controllability Class according to ISO 26262

The ISO 26262 standard specifies the requirement for functional safety of electrical and electronic systems within road vehicles. We have accumulated case studies based on actual riding tests by subjective judgment of expert riders to define a method for determining the controllability class (C class). However, the wide variety of practical traffic environments and vehicle behaviors in case of malfunction make it difficult to evaluate all C classes in actual running tests. Furthermore, under some conditions, actual riding tests may cause unacceptable risks to test riders. In Part 12 Annex C of ISO/DIS 26262, simulation is cited as an example of a technique for comprehensive evaluations by the Controllability Classification Panel. This study investigated the usefulness of mathematical simulations for evaluating the C class of a motorcycle reproducing a malfunction in either the front or rear brakes.
Technical Paper

Safety Evaluation on Fuel Cell Stacks Fire and Toxicity Evaluation of Material Combustion Gas for FCV

Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
Technical Paper

Research on the Evacuation Readiness of Bus Crews and Passengers - Investigation of the Effect of a New Type of Exit

This research was conducted to propose appropriate emergency exits for bus crews and passengers. We developed the improved emergency exit based on the results of current bus exit performance tests, and investigated its effect on evacuation readiness. Tests employing human subjects were conducted to measure the time required to evacuate using the improved emergency exit. The subjects' psychological responses during evacuation were also studied to identify any evacuation problems. We also carried out tests of group evacuation through windows in a current bus to obtain the relationship between the evacuation time, the number of evacuation subjects, and the number of windows. The results show that the improved emergency exit is effective in improving evacuation readiness. It is clear that there is a positive correlation between the evacuation time, the number of subjects, and the number of windows.
Technical Paper

Research on bus passenger safety in frontal impacts

Guidelines with regard to the body strength of buses have been drawn up in Japan. We now pass to the second step in research to assure the greater safety of bus crews and passengers by launching a study on further reduction of collision injuries to bus occupants. As a way to reduce such passenger injuries, our focus is the optimization of energy absorption, the arrangement of equipment on the passenger seat back, the seat frame construction, mounting and so on. The study was conducted using an experimental method together with FEM computer simulation. The findings from a sled impact test simulating a seat in a bus in a frontal collision are stated as follows. 1.Further consideration should be given to the present conventional ELR two-point seat belt. 2.One way to reduce passenger injury is to optimize the space between seats.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
Journal Article

Research on Method for Classifying Injury Severity Using Motorcycle Accident Data for ISO 26262

ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for passenger cars. In this standard, ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for passenger cars are determined by evaluating the hazardous events associated with each item constituting an electrical and/or electronic safety-related system according to three evaluation criteria including injury severity. On the other hand, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. It is expected that a severity evaluation for motorcycles will be needed because motorcycles are clearly different from passenger cars in vehicle mass and structure. Therefore, this study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data.
Technical Paper

R&D and Analysis of Energy Consumption Improvement Factor for Advanced Clean Energy HEVs

Ultra-low energy consumption and ultra-low emission vehicle technologies have been developed by combining petroleum-alternative clean energy with a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system. Their component technologies cover a wide range of vehicle types, such as passenger cars, delivery trucks, and city buses, adsorbed natural gas (ANG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and dimethyl ether (DME) as fuels, series (S-HEV) and series/parallel (SP-HEV) for hybrid types, and as energy storage systems (ESSs), flywheel batteries (FWBs), capacitors, and lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. Evaluation tests confirmed that the energy consumption of the developed vehicles is 1/2 of that of conventional diesel vehicles, and the exhaust emission levels are comparable to Japan's ultra-low emission vehicle (J-ULEV) level.
Technical Paper

Outline of the Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project

The Advanced Clean Energy Vehicle Project (ACE Project) has been initiated to develop the vehicles which can utilize oil-alternative and clean fuels and achieve twice the energy efficiency of conventional vehicles. To achieve the project objectives, Japanese automobile manufactures are developing six types of hybrid vehicles. Technologies of the developing vehicles include many kinds of hybrid elements, such as series and series/parallel types, alternative fuels (natural gas, DME, methanol) internal combustion engines and a fuel cell, as well as flywheels, ultra-capacitors and Li-ion batteries. This paper introduces the outline of ACE project.
Technical Paper

One Approach to Definition of MSILs and Their Connections with ASILs

ISO 26262 (Road vehicles - Functional safety), a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. In this standard, hazardous events associated with each item constituting a safety-related system are assessed according to three criteria, namely, Severity, Exposure, and Controllability, thereby determining ASILs (Automotive Safety Integrity Levels) representing safety levels for motor vehicles. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply ASILs to motorcycles. In the first place, the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. Accordingly, in this research, we attempted to newly define Motorcycle Safety Integrity Levels (MSILs).
Technical Paper

Lubricity of Liquefied Gas - Assessment of the Various Pressure and Temperature High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (VPT-HFRR) - LPG Blended Fuel for Diesel Engine

In this research, a test apparatus (VPT-HFRR) for evaluating lubricity was manufactured at an arbitrary pressure according to the lubricity test method (HFRR) for diesel fuel. The lubricity of LPG blended fuel (LBF) for diesel engines was examined using VPT-HFRR., This was a value close to that of diesel fuel, and when a suitable lubricity had been maintained, it was checked. Prototype trucks were manufactured and their durability was examined. After a run of 70,000km or more, no serious trouble had occurred, and when LBF was maintained at a suitable lubricity, it was checked.
Technical Paper

JamaS Study on the Location of In-Vehicle Displays

JAMA (Japan Automobile Manufactures Association, Inc.)'s guideline for car navigation systems is being decided on displayed the amount of information while driving. The position of a display and the estimated equation, which could be applied from a passenger car to a heavy truck, was studied. The evaluation index was the distance which drivers could become aware of a preceding vehicle by their peripheral vision, because car accidents while drivers glance at an in- vehicle display are almost the rear end collisions. As the results, the lower limit of a position of an in-vehicle display for a passenger car was 30 degrees, and a heavy truck was 46 degrees.
Technical Paper

Identification of Vehicle Dynamics Under Lateral Wind Disturbance Using Autoregressive Model

Analysis of vehicle motion under conditions of lateral wind disturbance is important for evaluating handling properties and vehicle stability. In the analysis, identification of vehicle dynamics is often carried out, and data for the identification is usually measured by a test with a lateral wind generator. However, vehicle transient response in the test usually converges for a short duration because of the limitation of the wind width. If the identification carried out from this data by conventional methods such as FFT, fine frequency resolution is not gained. In this research, an identification method based on the autoregressive model (AR-method), which is robust for a phenomenon of short duration, has been applied to the analysis of vehicle dynamics under the conditions in order to solve the above issue.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 Controllability Evaluation Technique by Expert Riders

Controllability (C class) represents the level of the ability to avoid harm and is one of the parameters that determine the Automotive Safety Integrity Level in the ISO 26262 functional safety standard, which applies to the electrical and/or electronic systems. This study aimed to consider an appropriate C class evaluation technique for expert riders in applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles. This study attempted to show a C class evaluation method without deviation by the riders and presented examples of the evaluation of three hazardous events in actual vehicle tests. In addition, riders' comments regarding their understanding of the circumstances that resulted in the evaluation were collected, and the correspondence of these comments was examined. We selected “unintended acceleration” or “unintended deceleration” due to the malfunction of the electronic throttle control system as hazard examples and conducted tests to reproduce hazardous events.
Technical Paper

ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles by Expert Riders Incorporating Technical Knowledge Obtained from Actual Riding Tests

In applying the ISO 26262 controllability classification for motorcycles in actual riding tests, a subjective evaluation by expert riders is considered to be the appropriate approach from the viewpoint of safety. We studied the construction of an expert-rider-based C class evaluation method for motorcycles and developed some evaluation test cases reproducing various hazardous events. We determined that it was necessary to accumulate more evaluation cases for further representative scenarios and that, to avoid variations in such evaluations, a method in which different expert riders can carry out testing following a common understanding had to be devised. Considering these problems for practical application, this study aimed at establishing an actual riding test method for C class evaluation by expert riders and to develop a deeper understanding of test procedures and management.
Journal Article

Examination of the Validity of Connections between MSILs and ASILs in the Functional Safety Standard for Motor Vehicles

ISO 26262, a functional safety standard for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011. Although motorcycles are not included in the scope of application of the current edition of ISO 26262, it is expected that motorcycles will be included in the next revision. However, it is not appropriate to directly apply automotive safety integrity levels (ASILs) to motorcycles because the situation of usage in practice presumably differs between motorcycles and motor vehicles. In our previous study, we newly defined safety integrity levels for motorcycles (MSILs) and proposed that the levels of MSILs should correspond to levels one step lower than those of ASILs; however, we did not investigate the validity of their connections. Accordingly, in this research, we validated the connections. We defined the difference of levels of SILs between motorcycles and motor vehicles as the difference of target values of random hardware failure rates specified in ISO 26262-5.
Journal Article

Examination of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Exposure Research in the Real Traffic Situation of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. In order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle, proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL). Exposure is a factor to indicate the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction. And it is not easy to estimate the motorcycle Exposure due to less availability of back ground data in actual operational situation compared to motor vehicle. Therefore real traffic situation should be investigated in order to provide rationales for MSIL determination.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.