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Technical Paper

Study on Reliable Automotive Exhaust Acrolein Collection Method

2010-10-25
2010-01-2207
Aldehydes and ketones are known as one of the hazardous air pollutants. Usually, acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are used for automotive exhaust carbonyls collection. Then, aldehydes and ketones combined with DNPH are analyzed by HPLC/UV (High Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Ultra Violet Detection). DNPH cartridge is used widely for a good point of the handling although handling of DNPH solution is not so convienient. However, the analytical result of acrolein using DNPH cartridge was known as the low reliability. Acrolein-DNPH is changed to acrolein-DNPH-DNPH in the cartridge with acid atmosphere before extraction. And then, acrorein-DNPH-DNPH is changed to acrorein-DNPH-DNPH-DNPH with an acid atmosphere. As a result of such chemical reaction before extraction, the acrolein-DNPH is detected to low concentration. We found that at the low temperature condition, acrolein-DNPH concentration decrease speed is held down.
Technical Paper

Simplifying the Structural Design of the Advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor for Use in Standardized Testing

2018-04-03
2018-01-1049
The advanced Pedestrian Legform Impactor (aPLI) incorporates a number of enhancements for improved lower limb injury prediction capability with respect to its predecessor, the FlexPLI. The aPLI also incorporates a simplified upper body part (SUBP), connected to the lower limb via a mechanical hip joint, that expands the impactor’s applicability to evaluate pedestrian’s lower limb injury risk also in high-bumper cars.As the aPLI has been developed to be used in standardized testing, further considerations on the impactor’s manufacturability, robustness, durability, usability, and repeatability need to be accounted for.. The aim of this study is to define and verify, by means of numerical analysis, a battery of design modifications that may simplify the manufacturing and use of physical aPLIs, without reducing the impactors’ biofidelity. Eight candidate parameters were investigated in a two-step numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

JCAPII Cross Check Tests of Fast Electrical Mobility Spectrometers for Evaluation of Accuracy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4081
Crosscheck tests of fast electrical mobility spectrometers, Differential Mobility Spectroscopy (DMS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer(EEPS), were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of fine particle measurement. Two kinds of particles were used as test particles for the crosscheck test of instruments: particles emitted from diesel vehicles and diluted in a full dilution tunnel, and particles generated by CAST. In the steady state tests, it was confirmed that the average concentration of each instrument was within the range of ±2σ from the average concentration of all the same type of instruments. In the transient tests, it is verified that the instruments have almost equal sensitivity. For application of the fast electrical mobility spectrometers to evaluation of particle number and size distributions, it is essential to develop a calibration method using reference particle counters and sizers (CPC, SMPS, etc.) and maintenance methods appropriate for each model.
Technical Paper

Ignition Process of Intermittent Short-Circuit on Modeled Automobile Wires

1996-02-01
960395
Our study was conducted to demonstrate the primary factors involved in fires which result from an automobile's electrical wire harness system with fuses. In our experiments we used modeled automobile wire harnesses to study the processes of ignition and the resultant fires. Current was passed through blade type fuses to a portion of the harness and was intermittently short-circuited by a grounded metal plate. The nominal current ratings of the fuses we used were lower than or equal to 30 amperes [A], and the operating current was 30A at 12 Volts. Current flowed to the harness specimens through a DC power source. We found that electrical tracking with scintillation, caused by a weak electric flow through carbonized wire insulation, rarely generated flames in the wire harnesses without blowing the fuse. Ignition was never observed on the insulation near the areas shorted by the arc and/or overloaded currents going to the wire elements.
Technical Paper

Development of a Biofidelic Flexible Pedestrian Leg-form Impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) and Evaluation of its Biofidelity at the Component Level and at the Assembly Level

2005-04-11
2005-01-1879
JAMA-JARI has developed a biofidelic flexible pedestrian leg-form impactor (Flex-PLI 2004) by making several modifications to the Flex-PLI 2003 to improve usability, durability and biofidelity. Biofidelity evaluation for the Flex-PLI 2004 was estimated at the component level (thigh, knee, and leg individually) as well as at the assembly level (thigh-knee-leg complex), using an objective impactor biofidelity evaluation system based on a method developed by Rhule et al. to eliminate any subjective prejudice in an impactor biofidelity evaluation. Applying the biofidelity evaluation system to the Flex-PLI 2004, the average impactor biofidelity rank (IBR) score became 1.22 at the component level and 1.26 at the assembly level. These IBR scores mean that the Flex-PLI 2004 has good biofidelity at the component level as well as at the assembly level.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Low Concentration Aldehyde and Ketone Compounds in Automotive Exhaust Gas by New Collection Reagent.

2005-05-11
2005-01-2152
Acidified 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution, or DNPH-impregnated cartridges are commonly used for the collection of automotive exhaust carbonyl compounds. There are some DNPH-carbonyl compounds in not in use DNPH cartridges and DNPH solution. Furthermore, concentrations of automotive exhaust carbonyl compounds are decreasing according to improvement of the purification technology for automotive exhaust. Automotive exhaust carbonyl compounds become to be difficult to be analyzed with DNPH collection method, because of these two reasons. It is thought that reliable analysis of acrolein in automotive exhaust is very difficult because concentration of DNPH-acrolein in extracted solution is not stable. Furthermore, it is found out that DNPH-acrolein in DNPH-cartridge is disappeared for short time storage in this research.
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