Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 10 of 10
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Reduction of Diesel Engine Emissions by Using the Oxidation Catalysts of Japan Diesel 13 Mode Cycle

To reduce emissions from diesel engines, the effects of oxidation catalysts on the emissions reductions were studied. The effectiveness of several oxidation catalysts on both the regulated and unregulated emissions was evaluated. The oxidation activity of the catalysts was varied by changing Pt loading. The regulated emissions include particulate (PM), hydrocarbon (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), and the unregulated emissions include benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). An 8 litter, turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was operated under the Japan Diesel 13 (D13) mode cycle for the evaluations. As the first step, evaluations were conducted with a commercially available JIS #2 diesel fuel (0.046 wt% sulfur). All the regulated and unregulated emissions except PM were reduced as the Pt loading (i.e. oxidation activity) increased. However, PM emissions were increased by the generation of sulfate when the Pt loading exceeded 0.2 g/l.
Technical Paper

Study of 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst System for HD Diesel Engine

A 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalyst system is one of potential after-treatment technology to meet stringent NOx and PM emissions standards as Post New Long Term (Japanese 2009 regulation) and US'10. Concerning NOx reduction using NSR catalyst, a secondary fuel injection is necessary to make fuel-rich exhaust condition during the NOx reduction, and causes its fuel penalty. Since fuel injected in the high-temperature (∼250 degrees Celsius) exhaust instantly reacts with oxygen in common diesel exhaust, the proportion of fuel consumption to reduce the NOx stored on NSR catalyst is relatively small. A 2-LEG NSR catalyst system has the decreasing exhaust flow mechanism during NOx reduction, and the potential to improve the NOx reduction and fuel penalty. Therefore, this paper studies the 2-LEG NSR catalyst system. The after-treatment system consists of NSR catalysts, a secondary fuel injection system, flow controlled valves and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF).
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Low-Temperature Performance of The NOx Reduction Efficiency on the Urea-SCR Catalysts

Diesel engine has a good fuel economy and high durability and used widely for power source such as heavy duty in the world. On the other hand, it is required to reduce NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) and PM (Particulate Matter) emissions further from diesel exhaust gases to preserve atmosphere. The urea-SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system is the most promising measures to reduce NOx emissions. DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) system is commercialized for PM reduction. However, in case that a vehicle has a slow speed as an urban area driving, a diesel exhaust temperature is too low to activate SCR catalyst for NOx reduction in diesel emissions. Moreover, the diesel exhaust temperature becomes lower as a future engine has less fuel consumption. The purpose of this study is reduction of NOx emission from a heavy-duty diesel engine using the Urea SCR system at the low temperature.
Technical Paper

Emission Characteristics from After-Treatment System of Medium and Light Duty Engines

1 To meet the Japan Post New-Long-Term (Japan 2009) emissions regulation introduced in 2009, The Hydrocarbon Selective Catalytic Reduction (HC-SCR) system for the NOx emission with a diesel fuel was chosen among various deNOx after-treatment systems (the Urea-SCR, the NOx storage-Reduction Catalyst and so on). The HC-SCR was adopted, in addition to combustion modification of diesel engine (mainly cooled EGR) as the New DPR system. The New DPR system for medium and light duty vehicles was developed as a world's first technology by Hino Motors. Advantages of the New DPR are compact to easy-to-install catalyst converter and no urea solution (DEF) injection (regardless urea infrastructure) as compared the Urea-SCR system.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Urea-SCR and DPF System for Heavy Duty Engine

Urea selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems have a high NOx conversion rate because the ammonia formed by the hydrolyzing urea solution reacts with NOx efficiently as a reducing agent. Systems combining urea-SCR and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been adopted in heavy duty vehicles to meet the post new long term emissions regulations in Japan. This study examined the emissions reduction performance of these systems after 160,000 km. The emissions that were examined included both regulated emissions (NOx, PM, HC, and CO) and unregulated emissions. As a result, the cleanness of diesel emissions from a urea-SCR and DPF system was confirmed.