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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Potential of Nanoparticle Formation by Vehicles

For the better understanding of nanoparticles observed on the rode side, adding to the emission test on the chassis dynamometer and engine dynamometer test, possible factors for formation of nanoparticles are investigated. As other possible factors, cold starting of transient test cycle, blow-by gas from heavy duty diesel engine without a positive crankcase ventilation, exhaust braking, and plume mixing of vehicle exhausts were investigated. Nuclei mode particles under the transient test cycles formed during fuel cut period, fuel enrichment period and idling period. Concentration of nuclei mode particles during the idling period are depends on exhaust temperature. The higher exhaust temperature courses the lower number concentration but variation range is within twice. Emission rate of nanoparticles from blow-by gas is one thousandth of tail pipe emissions rate and was found to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study of Urea SCR Systems on Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicles

Four urea SCR systems were developed and evaluated on a C/D and on the road to investigate their potential for Japanese emission regulations in 2005 and beyond. Test results showed that NOx conversion ratios were 50 to 70% during the Japanese D13 mode cycle, and the ratios under the transient driving cycle were lower than those tested during a steady state. Unregulated emissions, such as benzene, aldehyde and benzo[a]pyrene, existed either at a trace level using the oxidation catalyst, or lower than a base diesel engine, when no oxidation catalyst was used. The health effects of particulate matter emitted from the SCR system were almost the same as those from conventional diesel engines, as evaluated by the Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test. Thermal degradation products, such as cyanuric acid and melamine, were two to four figures lower compared with the toxicological information of Safety Information Resources Inc. (SIRI).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Regulated Materials and Ultra Fine Particle Emission from Trial Production of Heavy-Duty CNG Engine

A prototype CNG engine for heavy-duty trucks has been developed. The engine had sufficient output in practical use, and the green-house gas emission rate was below that of the base diesel engine. Furthermore, the NOx emission rate was reduced to 0.16 g/kWh in the JE05 mode as results of having fully adjusted air fuel ratio control. The measured emission characteristics of particles from the prototype CNG engine demonstrated that oil consumption was related to the number of particles. Moreover, when oil consumption is at an appropriate level, the accumulation mode particles are significantly reduced, and the nuclei mode particles are fewer than those of diesel-fueled engines.