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Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions Evaluation of Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI), State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, Aromatics and FAME)

In order to clarify future automobile technologies and fuel qualities to improve air quality, second phase of Japan Clean Air Program (JCAPII) had been conducted from 2002 to 2007. Predicting improvement in air quality that might be attained by introducing new emission control technologies and determining fuel qualities required for the technologies is one of the main issues of this program. Unregulated material WG of JCAPII had studied unregulated emissions from gasoline and diesel engines. Eight gaseous hydrocarbons (HC), four Aldehydes and three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated as unregulated emissions. Specifically, emissions of the following components were measured: 1,3-Butadiene, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Ethylbenzene, 1,3,5-Trimethyl-benzene, n-Hexane, Styrene as gaseous HCs, Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acrolein, Benzaldehyde as Aldehydes, and Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene as PAHs.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Life Prediction for Stainless Steel Exhaust Manifold

This paper describes the application of a life prediction method for stainless steel exhaust manifolds. Examination of the exhaust manifold cracks indicated that many of the failures could be attributed to out-of-phase thermal fatigue due to compressive strains that occur at high temperatures. Therefore, the plastic strain range was used as the crack initiation criteria. In addition, the comparison of the calculated thermal fatigue stress-strain hysteresis to the experimental hysteresis made it clear that it was essential to use the stress-strain data that was obtained through tensile and compression testing by keeping the test specimens at the maximum temperature of the thermal fatigue test mode. A finite element crack prediction method was developed using the aforementioned material data and good results were obtained.
Journal Article

Thermal Analysis of the Exhaust Line Focused on the Cool-Down Process

At the engine restart, when the temperature of the catalytic converter is low, additional fuel consumption would be required to warm up the catalyst for controlling exhaust emission.The aim of this study is to find a thermally optimal way to reduce fuel consumption for the catalyst warm up at the engine restart, by improving the thermal retention of the catalytic converter in the cool down process after the previous trip. To make analysis of the thermal flow around the catalytic converter, a 2-D thermal flow model was constructed using the thermal network method. This model simulates the following processes: 1) heat conduction between the substrate and the stainless steel case, 2) heat convection between the stainless steel case and the ambient air, 3) heat convection between the substrate and the gas inside the substrate, 4) heat generation due to chemical reactions.
Technical Paper

The Study of Particle Number Reduction Using After-Treatment Systems for a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce ultra fine particle number concentration from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of diesel fuel property and after-treatment systems were studied. The reduction of ultra fine particle number concentration over steady state mode using an 8 liter turbocharged and after-cooled diesel engine was evaluated. PM size distribution was measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The evaluation used a commercially available current diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.0036 wt%), high sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.046 wt%) and low sulfur diesel fuel (Sulfur Content: 0.007 wt%). The after-treatment systems were an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particle Filter) and a wall-flow type catalyzed DPF. The results show that fine particle number concentration is reduced with a low sulfur fuel, an oxidation catalyst, a wire-mesh type DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and wall flow type catalyzed DPF, respectively.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx and PM Reduction Using Urea Selective Catalytic Reduction System for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine, the effects of urea selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were studied. Proto type urea SCR system was composed of NO oxidation catalyst, SCR catalyst and ammonia (NH3) reduction catalyst. The NOx reduction performance of urea SCR system was improved by a new zeolite type catalyst and mixer for urea distribution at the steady state operating conditions. NOx and PM reduction performance of the urea SCR system with DPF was evaluated over JE05 mode of Japan. The NOx reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system was 72% at JE05 mode. The PM reduction efficiency of the urea SCR catalyst system with DPF was 93% at JE05 mode. Several kinds of un-regulated matters were detected including NH3 and N2O leak from the exhaust gas. It is necessary to have further study for detailed measurements for un-regulated emissions from urea solution.
Technical Paper

The Study of NOx Reduction Using Plasma-assisted SCR System for a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

To reduce NOx emissions from a heavy-duty engine at low exhaust temperature conditions, the plasma-assisted SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) system was evaluated. The plasma-assisted SCR system is mainly composed of an ammonia gas supply system and a plasma reactor including a pellet type SCR catalyst. The preliminary test with simulated gases of diesel exhaust showed an improvement in the NOx reduction performance by means of the plasma-assisted SCR system, even below 150°C conditions. Furthermore, NOx reduction ratio was improved up to 77% at 110°C with increase in the catalyst volume. Also NOx emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine over the transient test mode in Japan (JE05) were reduced by the plasma-assisted SCR system. However, unregulated emissions, e.g., aldehydes, were increased with the plasma environment. This paper reports the advantages and disadvantages of the plasma-assisted SCR system for a heavy-duty diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The New Toyota 1.2-Liter ESTEC Turbocharged Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

Toyota Motor Corporation is developing a series of engines belonging to its ESTEC (Economy with Superior Thermal Efficient Combustion) development concept. This paper describes the development of 8NR-FTS after the subsequent launch of the 2.0-liter DI Turbocharged 8AR-FTS. 8NR-FTS is a 1.2-liter inline 4-cylinder spark ignition downsized turbocharged direct injection (DI) gasoline engine. By following the same basic concepts as 8AR-FTS engine [1], the 8NR-FTS incorporates various fuel efficient technologies such as a cylinder head with an integrated exhaust manifold, the Atkinson cycle using the center-spooled variable valve timing with mid-position lock system (VVT-iW), and intensified in-cylinder turbulence to achieve high-speed combustion.
Technical Paper

The New 2.4-Liter Slant Engine, 2TZ-FE, for the Toyota Previa

This paper describes a new 2.4-liter 16-valve in-line four-cylinder engine, 2TZ-FE, which has been mounted horizontally on a new minivan, the TOYOTA PREVIA. This engine has the TOYOTA original compact 4-valve DOHC system (scissors gear mechanism), and TOYOTA's newest technologies, such as 75 deg. slant cylinder and Separated accessory Drive System. The compact configuration reduces the height of this engine to only 44Omm (17.3-inches). Engine location is under the flat floor on the midship rear-wheel-drive vehicle and allows the PREVIA to have a spacious cabin with walkthrough. Its high performance, 103kW at 500Orpm and 209Nm at 4000rpm, has been achieved through updated technologies, such as: Knock Controll System (KCS), well studied intake system and exhaust manifold which is made of stainless steel double pipe. At the same time, high reliability and quietness have been achieved for the 2TZ-FE by TOYOTA's updated technologies.
Technical Paper

Study of Divided Converter Catalytic System Satisfying Quick Warm up and High Heat Resistance

Catalyst specifications and converter layouts were studied to identify the high conversion performance under various in-use driving conditions, high mileage intervals and extended life cycle. The effects of volumes, configuration, selection and loading distribution of precious metals, additive components and substrate type for catalyst were studied on engine dynamometers and vehicle tests to optimize a catalyst converter system. Moreover, model gas experiments were conducted to analyze deterioration mechanisms and conversion characteristics of catalysts. As a result, the concept of a divided catalyst converter system, which provides separate functions for a close-coupled and an under-floor catalyst, was found to be effective for the future exhaust system. For reducing HC emissions, the close-coupled catalyst should warm up quickly and resist a high temperature. The under-floor catalyst, located at a rather low temperature position, is durable and maintains high NOx conversion.
Technical Paper

Study of 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction Catalyst System for HD Diesel Engine

A 2-LEG NOx Storage-Reduction (NSR) catalyst system is one of potential after-treatment technology to meet stringent NOx and PM emissions standards as Post New Long Term (Japanese 2009 regulation) and US'10. Concerning NOx reduction using NSR catalyst, a secondary fuel injection is necessary to make fuel-rich exhaust condition during the NOx reduction, and causes its fuel penalty. Since fuel injected in the high-temperature (∼250 degrees Celsius) exhaust instantly reacts with oxygen in common diesel exhaust, the proportion of fuel consumption to reduce the NOx stored on NSR catalyst is relatively small. A 2-LEG NSR catalyst system has the decreasing exhaust flow mechanism during NOx reduction, and the potential to improve the NOx reduction and fuel penalty. Therefore, this paper studies the 2-LEG NSR catalyst system. The after-treatment system consists of NSR catalysts, a secondary fuel injection system, flow controlled valves and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF).
Technical Paper

Structural Vibration Analysis in Turbocharger-Exhaust Systems

Engine running tests and excitation tests were performed to reveal the vibration behavior in a turbocharger-exhaust system related to the turbocharger's operating sound. The operating sound was caused by the resonant vibration excited by the unbalanced inertia force of the rotor. The turbocharger-exhaust system had six resonant frequencies in the operating speed range of the rotor. At resonant speeds, the whole turbocharger was translating or rotating due to bending and torsional deflection of the exhaust manifold. Based on the test results, the vibration behavior could be well simulated by a rigid body-spring model with six degree of freedom. Furthermore, the model was used to analyze the relation between the stiffness of the exhaust manifold and the vibration level. Increasing the stiffness of the exhaust manifold was effective in sufficiently reducing the vibration and sound.
Technical Paper

Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions of SI Engine During Cold Start and Warm-up

The emission characteristics of hydrocarbons during the cold start and the warm-up have been investigated. Timed sampling of hydrocarbon emissions upstream and downstream of a close-coupled catalytic converter have been carried out. The experimental results show that the emission characteristics of hydrocarbons are influenced by both the engine operating conditions and the heating characteristics of the catalytic converter. In the case of engine-out hydrocarbons, the total amount of hydrocarbons drastically decreases but the percentage contribution of the C2-C4 olefins to the engine-out hydrocarbons increases as the warm-up proceeds. Since these olefins have relatively high maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) factors, the specific reactivity (SR) of the engine-out hydrocarbons gradually increases during the warm-up. The adsorption and desorption processes of the engine-out hydrocarbons on the catalyst occur before the catalyst light-off.
Technical Paper

Regenration Process of Ceramic Foam Diesel-Particulate Traps

Periodic regeneration of the diesel particulate trap is essential to maintain the collection efficiency and exhaust gas hack pressure at acceptable levels. The objectives of this study are to describe the phenomenology of ceramic foam filter regeneration process and to present its mathematical model. Further simulation study is carried out to estimate the effects of various factors including fuel additive on the ignition and the filter bed temperature and to investigate conditions of excessive temperature which could result in filter destruction. The model is based on the assumption that the regeneration process is composed of two steps. The first step is the additional heat supply from the external energy source, and the second step is the spontaneous combustion propagation. The results from the analytical model agreed very well with the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Regeneration Capability of Wall-Flow Monolith Diesel Particulate Filter with Electric Heater

A regeneration of a wall-flow monolith filter with a heater unit was examined. In the preliminary test the regeneration showed unsatisfactory results, back pressure level increased and filter melting occured. Reversing the gas flow through the filter during the regeneration process and initiating particulate combustion from the outlet side of the filter was found to be a solution for the filter melting problem in particular. This “reverse regeneration” system, which we call RRG, compared with a conventional regeneration (CRG) was examined with a model reactor and applied on an actual vehicle on a chassis dynamometer. Tests confirmed that filter melting was prevented, however cracking of the filter could not be prevented with an RRG.
Technical Paper

Regeneration Capability of Diesel Particulate Filter System Using Electric Heater

Regeneration capability of a wall-flow monolith type diesel paticulates filter with an electric heater was studied. To prevent filter crack generation and unburned particulates accumulation, a precision controller was added to the test equipment to reduce thermal load. In order to control the supply of oxygen to potentially prevent cracking, a second air feeder was also added. Furthermore, to ignite the accumulated particulates uniformly and propagate extensively to burn accumulated particulates completely a newly improved heater unit was employed. Repeated regeneration tests were conducted with cars on a chassis dynamometer. Though crack generation and unburned particulates accumulation were reduced considerably, satisfactory prevention could not be achieved. Therefore a parameter study using regenerative burning and thermal stress analysis model was carried out.
Journal Article

Prediction of Spray Behavior in Injected by Urea SCR Injector and the Reaction Products

In the urea SCR system, urea solution is injected by injector installed in the front stage of the SCR catalyst, and NOx can be purified on the SCR catalyst by using NH3 generated by the chemical reaction of urea. NH3 is produced by thermolysis of urea and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid after evaporation of water in the urea solution. But, biuret and cyanuric acid which may cause deposit are sometimes generated by the chemical reactions without generating NH3. Spray behavior and chemical reaction of urea solution injected into the tail-pipe are complicated. The purpose of this study is to reveal the spray behavior and NH3 generation process in the tail-pipe, and to construct the model capable of predicting those accurately. In this report, the impingement spray behavior is clarified by scattered light method in high temperature flow field. Liquid film adhering to the wall and deposit generated after evaporation of water from the liquid film are photographed by the digital camera.
Technical Paper

Potential of Nanoparticle Formation by Vehicles

For the better understanding of nanoparticles observed on the rode side, adding to the emission test on the chassis dynamometer and engine dynamometer test, possible factors for formation of nanoparticles are investigated. As other possible factors, cold starting of transient test cycle, blow-by gas from heavy duty diesel engine without a positive crankcase ventilation, exhaust braking, and plume mixing of vehicle exhausts were investigated. Nuclei mode particles under the transient test cycles formed during fuel cut period, fuel enrichment period and idling period. Concentration of nuclei mode particles during the idling period are depends on exhaust temperature. The higher exhaust temperature courses the lower number concentration but variation range is within twice. Emission rate of nanoparticles from blow-by gas is one thousandth of tail pipe emissions rate and was found to be negligible.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Deactivation Process of Three-way Catalytic Converters

This paper presents the numerical simulation method to predict the deactivation process of three-way catalytic converters. Three-way catalytic converter's deactivation typically results from thermal and chemical mechanisms. The major factor of thermal deactivation is the sintering of noble metal particles, which is known to depend on the ageing temperature and the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. The chemical deactivation is mainly caused by the poisoning, which has two effects on the catalyst deactivation. One effect is the loss of the catalyst activity, which is expressed by reduced frequency factors of reaction rates. Another effect is the suppression of the noble metal sintering. Poison deposits prevent the noble metal particles from moving in the washcoat, assisted by the reduced thermal loading of reaction heats, which is caused by the loss of the catalyst activity. Modeling these deactivation factors, we propose the rate expression of noble metal sintering.
Technical Paper

Nano Particle Emission Evaluation of State of the Art Diesel Aftertreatment Technologies (DPF, urea-SCR and DOC), Gasoline Combustion Systems (Lean Burn / Stoichiometric DISI and MPI) and Fuel Qualities Effects (EtOH, ETBE, FAME, Aromatics and Distillation)

Newly designed laboratory measurement system, which reproduces particle number size distributions of both nuclei and accumulation mode particles in exhaust emissions, was developed. It enables continuous measurement of nano particle emissions in the size range between 5 and 1000 nm. Evaluations of particle number size distributions were conducted for diesel vehicles with a variety of emission aftertreatment devices and for gasoline vehicles with different combustion systems. For diesel vehicles, Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (urea-SCR) system and catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) were evaluated. For gasoline vehicles, Lean-burn Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI), Stoichiometric DISI and Multi Point Injection (MPI) were evaluated. Japanese latest transient test cycles were used for the evaluation: JE05 mode driving cycle for heavy duty vehicles and JC08 mode driving cycle for light duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Model Based Air Fuel Ratio Control for Reducing Exhaust Gas Emissions

In order to satisfy future demands of low exhaust emission vehicles (LEV), a new fuel injection control system has been developed for SI engines with three-way catalytic converters. An universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor (UEGO) is mounted on the exhaust manifold upstream of the catalytic converter to rapidly feedback the UEGO output signal and a heated exhaust gas oxygen sensor (HEGO) is mounted on the outlet of the converter to achieve an exact air fuel ratio control at stoichiometry. The control law is derived from mathematical models of dynamic air flow, fuel flow and exhaust oxygen sensors (HEGO and UEGO). Experimental results on FTP (Federal Test Procedure) exhaust emissions show a dramatic reduction of HC, CO and NOx emissions and a possibility of practical low emission vehicles at low cost.