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Technical Paper

Viral Populations within the International Space Station's Internal Active Thermal Control System Ground Support and Potential Flight Hardware

2007-07-09
2007-01-3108
The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) contains an aqueous, alkaline fluid (pH 9.5±0.5) that aids in maintaining a habitable environment for the crew. Because microbes have significant potential to cause disease, adverse effects on astronaut health, and microbe-induced corrosion, the presence of both bacteria and viruses within IATCS fluids is of concern. This study sought to detect and identify viral populations in IATCS samples obtained from the Kennedy Space Center as a first step towards characterizing and understanding potential risks associated with them. Samples were concentrated and viral nucleic acids (NA) extracted providing solutions containing 8.87-22.67 μg NA per mL of heat transfer fluid. After further amplification viral DNA and cDNA were then pooled, fluorescently labeled, and hybridized onto a Combimatrix panvira 12K microarray containing probes for ∼1,000 known human viruses.
Technical Paper

Validation of the SCARLET Advanced Array on DS1

1999-08-02
1999-01-2630
In October, 1998, the first of the NASA New Millennium Spacecraft, DS1, was successfully launched into space. The objectives for this spacecraft are to test advanced technologies that can reduce the cost or risk of future missions. One of these technologies is the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology (SCARLET). Although part of the advanced technology validation study, the array is also the spacecraft power source. Funded by BMDO, the SCARLET™ concentrator solar array is the first spaceflight application of a refractive lens concentrator. As part of the DS1 validation process, the amount of array diagnostics is very extensive. The data obtained includes temperature measurements at numerous locations on the 2-wing solar array. For each individual panel, a 5-cell module in one of the circuit strings is wired so that a complete I-V curve can be obtained. This data is used to verify sun pointing accuracy and array output performance.
Technical Paper

Trace Gas Analyzer for Extra-Vehicular Activity

2001-07-09
2001-01-2405
The Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA, Figure 1) is a self-contained, battery-powered mass spectrometer that is designed for use by astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVA) on the International Space Station (ISS). The TGA contains a miniature quadrupole mass spectrometer array (QMSA) that determines the partial pressures of ammonia, hydrazines, nitrogen, and oxygen. The QMSA ionizes the ambient gas mixture and analyzes the component species according to their charge-to-mass ratio. The QMSA and its electronics were designed, developed, and tested by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (1,2). Oceaneering Space Systems supported JPL in QMSA detector development by performing 3D computer for optimal volumetric integration, and by performing stress and thermal analyses to parameterize environmental performance.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2036
The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) instrument is scheduled for launch onboard an Orbital Sciences Corporation LEOStar-2 architecture spacecraft in December 2008. The instrument will collect data to identify CO2 sources and sinks and quantify their seasonal variability. OCO observations will permit the collection of spatially resolved, high resolution spectroscopic observations of CO2 and O2 absorption in reflected sunlight over both continents and oceans. OCO has three bore-sighted, high resolution, grating spectrometers which share a common telescope with similar optics and electronics. A 0.765 μm channel will be used for O2 observations, while the weak and strong CO2 bands will be observed with 1.61 μm and 2.06 μm channels, respectively. The OCO spacecraft circular polar orbit will be sun-synchronous with an inclination of 98.2 degrees, mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period.
Technical Paper

Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2037
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is scheduled for launch in 2008 onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. The mission is managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India and is India's first flight to the Moon. M3 is being developed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory under the Discovery Program Office managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. M3 is a state-of-the-art instrument designed to fulfill science and exploratory objectives. Its primary science objective is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition to better understand its geologic evolution. M3's primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. M3 is a cryogenic near infrared imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance Evaluation of a Small Loop Heat Pipe for Space Applications

2003-07-07
2003-01-2688
A Small Loop Heat Pipe (SLHP) featuring a wick of only 1.27 cm (0.5 inches) in diameter has been designed for use in spacecraft thermal control. It has several features to accommodate a wide range of environmental conditions in both operating and non-operating states. These include flexible transport lines to facilitate hardware integration, a radiator capable of sustaining over 100 freeze-thaw cycles using ammonia as a working fluid and a structural integrity to sustain acceleration loads up to 30 g. The small LHP has a maximum heat transport capacity of 120 Watts with thermal conductance ranging from 17 to 21 W/°C. The design incorporates heaters on the compensation chamber to modulate the heat transport from full-on to full-stop conditions. A set of start up heaters are attached to the evaporator body using a specially designed fin to assist the LHP in starting up when it is connected to a large thermal mass.
Technical Paper

Thermal Design and Flight Experience of the Mars Exploration Rover Spacecraft Computer-Controlled, Propulsion Line Heaters

2004-07-19
2004-01-2412
As part of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) launched two rovers in June and July of 2003 and successfully landed both of them on Mars in January of 2004. The cruise stage of each spacecraft (S/C) housed most of the hardware needed to complete the cruise from Earth to Mars, including the propulsion system. Propulsion lines brought hydrazine propellant from tanks under the cruise stage to attitude-control thrusters located on the periphery of the cruise stage. Hydrazine will freeze in the propellant lines if it reaches temperatures below 1.7°C. Thermal control of the propulsion lines was a mission critical function of the thermal subsystem; a frozen propellant line could have resulted in loss of attitude control and complete loss of the S/C.
Journal Article

Thermal Control System of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2008-06-29
2008-01-2119
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument is one in a suite of twelve instruments which will fly onboard the Indian Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2008. Chandrayaan-1 is India's first mission to the Moon and is being managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, India. Chandrayaan-1 overall scientific objective is the photo-selenological and the chemical mapping of the Moon. The primary science objective of the M3 instrument is the characterization and mapping of the lunar surface composition in the context of its geologic evolution. Its primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions. It is a “push-broom” near infrared (IR) imaging spectrometer with spectral coverage of 0.4 to 3.0 μm at 10 nm resolution with high signal to noise ratio, spatial and spectral uniformity.
Technical Paper

The Thermal Design Evolution of the Phoenix Robotic Arm

2006-07-17
2006-01-2033
Phoenix, NASA's first Mars Scouts mission, will be launched in 2007 and will soft-land inside the Martian Arctic Circle, between north 65° and 72° North latitude, in 2008 to study the water history and to search for habitable zones. Similar to the IDD (Instrument Deployment Device) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Phoenix has a Robotic Arm (RA) which is equipped with a scoop to dig into the icy soil and to deliver the soil samples to instruments for scientific observations and measurements. As with MER, the actuators and the bearings of the Phoenix RA in a non-operating condition can survive the cold Martian night without any electrical power or any thermal insulation. The RA actuators have a minimum operating allowable flight temperature (AFT) limit of -55°C, so, warm-up heaters are required to bring the temperatures of all the RA actuators above the operating AFT limit prior to early morning operation.
Technical Paper

Sojourner Mars Rover Thermal Performance

1998-07-13
981685
The Sojourner Rover landed on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Mission. The mission lasted almost three months during which the thermal design of the Rover was tested. This paper summarizes the Rover's design and performance as well as post-mission model correlation.
Technical Paper

Results from the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor: A Miniature Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for Trace Contamination Monitoring on the ISS and Orion

2008-06-29
2008-01-2045
Progress on the delivery of the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) is reported. VCAM is an autonomous trace-species detector to be used aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for atmospheric analysis. The instrument is based on a low-mass, low-power miniature preconcentrator, gas chromatograph, and Paul ion trap mass spectrometer (PCGC/MS) capable of measuring volatile constituents in a space vehicle or planetary outpost at sub-ppm levels. VCAM detects and quantifies 40 target compounds at their 180-day Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels. It is designed to operate autonomously, maintenance-free, with a self-contained carrier and calibration gas supplies sufficient for a one-year lifetime. Two flight units will be delivered for operation in the ISS EXPRESS rack.
Technical Paper

Q-PCR Based Bioburden Assessment of Drinking Water Throughout Treatment and Delivery to the International Space Station

2005-07-11
2005-01-2932
Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens in samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were designed and used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. In addition, primer-probe sets specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and genes of these two opportunistic pathogens quantified in the pre- and post-flight drinking water as well as coolant waters. This Q-PCR approach supports findings of previous culture-based studies however; the culture based studies may have underestimated the microbial burden of ISS drinking water.
Technical Paper

Overview of the Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor, a Miniature Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer for Trace Contamination Monitoring on the ISS and CEV

2007-07-09
2007-01-3150
Work is underway to deliver an instrument for analysis of the atmosphere aboard the International Space Station. The Vehicle Cabin Atmosphere Monitor (VCAM) is based on a low-mass, low-power miniature preconcentrator gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (PCGC/MS) capable of providing sub-ppm measurements of volatile constituents in a space vehicle or outpost. VCAM is designed to operate autonomously, maintenance-free, once per day, with its own carrier and calibration gas supplies sufficient for a one-year lifetime. VCAM performance is sufficient to detect and identify 90% of the target compounds specified at their 180-day Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels. The flight units will be delivered in mid-2008 and be operated in the ISS EXPRESS rack.
Technical Paper

Operational Thermal Control of Cassini Titan Flybys

2003-07-07
2003-01-2685
The Cassini spacecraft will make 45 targeted flybys of Saturn's largest moon, Titan. 25 flybys will have a relatively low closest approach target altitude in Titan's atmosphere. An operational thermal control strategy has been developed for these flybys. The challenge met was to provide flyby operational thermal control that enabled science and remained within design limitations and Project constraints. Thermal engineers adopted a Systems-level approach that insured appropriate risk mitigation and information accuracy. This paper focuses on the technical thermal control evaluation and strategy, the Systems-level approach taken, and lessons learned and recommendations in an operations environment.
Technical Paper

Operation of an Electronic Nose Aboard the Space Shuttle and Directions for Research for a Second Generation Device

2000-07-10
2000-01-2512
A flight experiment to test the operation of an Electronic Nose developed and built at JPL and Caltech was done aboard STS-95 in October-November, 1998. This ENose uses conductometric sensors made of insulating polymer-carbon composite films; it has a volume of 1.7 liters, weighs 1.4 kg including the operating computer and operates on 1.5 W average power. In the flight experiment, the ENose was operated continuously for 6 days and recorded the sensors' response to changes in air in the mid-deck of the orbiter. The ENose had been trained to identify and quantify ten common contaminants at the 24-hour Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) level. Most SMACs are on the order of 10-100 ppm. The experiment was controlled by collecting air samples daily and analyzing them using standard analytical techniques after the flight. The device is microgravity insensitive.
Technical Paper

Operation of Third Generation JPL Electronic Nose on the International Space Station

2009-07-12
2009-01-2522
The Third Generation ENose is an air quality monitor designed to operate in the environment of the US Lab on the International Space Station (ISS). It detects a selected group of analytes at target concentrations in the ppm regime at an environmental temperature range of 18 – 30 °C, relative humidity from 25 – 75% and pressure from 530 to 760 torr. This device was installed and activated on ISS on Dec. 9, 2008 and has been operating continuously since activation. Data are downlinked and analyzed weekly. Results of analysis of ENose monitoring data show the short term presence of low concentration of alcohols, octafluoropropane and formaldehyde as well as frequent short term unknown events.
Journal Article

On-Orbit Thermal Performance of the TES Instrument-Three Years in Space

2008-06-29
2008-01-2118
The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), launched on NASA's Earth Observing System Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004 has successfully completed over three years in space and has captured a number of important lessons. The instrument primary science objective is the investigation and quantification of global climate change. TES measures the three-dimensional distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere on a global scale. It is an infrared (IR) high resolution, imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with a 3.3 to 15.4 μm spectral coverage required for space-based measurements to profile essentially all infrared-active molecules present in the Earth's lower atmosphere. The nominal on-orbit mission lifetime is 5 years. The Aura spacecraft flies in a sun-synchronous near-circular polar orbit with 1:38 pm ascending node.
Technical Paper

On-Orbit Performance of the TES Loop Heat Pipe Heat Rejection System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2000
Launched on NASA's Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004, JPL's Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) has been operating successfully for over three years in space. TES is an infrared high resolution, imaging fourier transform spectrometer with spectral coverage of 3.3 to 15.4 μm to measure and profile essentially all infrared-active molecules present in the Earth's lower atmosphere. It measures the three-dimensional distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere on a global scale. The Aura spacecraft was successfully placed in a sun-synchronous near-circular polar orbit with a mean altitude of 705 km and 98.9 minute orbit period. The observatory is designed for a nominal 5 year mission lifetime. The instrument thermal design features include four temperature zones needed for efficient cryogenic staging to provide cooling at 65 K, 180 K, 230 K and 300 K.
Journal Article

On-Orbit Performance of the Moon Mineralogy Mapper Instrument

2009-07-12
2009-01-2390
Launched on India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft on October 22, 2008, JPL's Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument has successfully completed over six months of operation in space. M3 is one in a suite of eleven instruments, six of which are foreign payloads, flying onboard the Indian spacecraft. Chandrayaan-1, managed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in Bangalore, is India's first deep space mission. Chandrayaan-1 was launched on the upgraded version of India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, SHAR, Sriharikota, India. The primary science objective of the M3 instrument is the characterization and mapping of the lunar surface composition in the context of its geologic evolution. Its primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial resolution to support future targeted missions.
Technical Paper

Noise Environment Reduction Foam Spheres in Space

1989-09-01
892373
The advent of lightweight fairings for new spacecraft and the increased thrust of new launch vehicles have intensified the need for better techniques for predicting and for reducing the low frequency noise environment of spacecraft at lift-off. This paper presents a VAPEPS (VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System) parametrical analysis of the noise reduction of spacecraft fairings and explores a novel technique for increasing the low frequency noise reduction of lightweight fairings by approximately 10 dB.
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